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Remembered Today:

First Ypres: Langemarck, October 22, 1914


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I am trying to find some very specific information about the Battle of Langemark which took place October 22, 1914 between the British and German armies.

Several battles were fought in this area just a few miles north and north-east of Ypres, including at Bixschoote, Kortekeer, and at the town of Langemarck, and these battles were given the official title "The Battle of Langemark" by the British Official Historian.

I am most interested in the battle that took place at Langemarck on October 22.

I have almost all of my information about this day from the CWGC's website. They give a brief description of the conditions at Langemarck, but there is no detailed account of the battle.


The CWGC's website says "[o]n 22 October two major German breakthrough assaults were made against Ypres . . . and from the north and north-east against I Corps around Langemarck."

It also mentions that prior to October 22nd, French Territorial units "had constructed some lengths of continuous trenches at Langemarck," in contrast to the other sectors of the Ypres Salient where the trenches were makeshift shallow "scraping, often less than four feet deep, offering very little cover from German artillery fire. These positions lacked dugouts, communications trenches and a second line to which men could retire. Barbed wire was in extremely short supply."

I have General Sir Anthony Farrar-Hockley's history: Ypres: Death of An Army. In Farrar-Hockley's book, there is a very general description of the fighting that occurred on October 22, followed by an very detailed diary account by Private J.S. Barston of the 1st Gloucestershire Battalion of an engagement that took place during the morning of October 23.

In Barston's account, two platoons of the Glosters were sent to protect a platoon of 26th Field Company, Royal Engineers, who had started to dig a trench just 50 yards north of the village Koekuit very, very early on the morning of October 23, just north up the road from Langemark; I read a fuller version of this diary account on the web, and the Glosters started to set out for Koekuit at 2:30 A.M. The trench, Barston writes, was finished about 6:00 A.M. Then a combined force of German infantry and cavalry descended upon them at about 9:00 A.M., and after the Glosters had taken heavy casualties, the much larger German force was driven off.

The trench is described as having both a parapet and a floor.

The only other information I have is from a linked site on the Gloster's home webpage that said one officer of the Glosters, Captain William Arthur Mould Temple, was killed in action, also at Koekuit, on October 22, 1914.

Therefore, I was thinking perhaps that the Glosters were also at Koekuit on October 22, 1914. But the soldier Barston in his diary account mentions that both Glosters platoons were just starting out to Koekuit one hour and a half later (that seems like a long period of time) after Major Pritchard of the Royal Engineers had initially sent runners off to 3rd Brigade Headquarters to request for military protection:

"Major H.L. Pritchard (Royal Engineers), had been ordered to strengthen the defences of the town, particulary towards Koekuit on the north side. For some little time, he searched for the infantry, but they had gone.

The Germans' capture of Kortekeer Cabaret had cause the 1st Coldstream Guards to draw in its companies and a gap of 400 yards was opened between the Guards Brigade on the left and 3rd Brigade on the right. Major Pritchard . . . set his sappers to work digging a trench and sent a pair of runners off to 3rd Brigade Headquarters for an infantry detachment to take over the gap.

An hour and a half later (! my emphasis), two platoons of the 1st Glosters were roused and inarched to Langemarck in response . . . "

Private Barston writes:

"We passed through Langemarck and at a point 50 yards beyond the village on the Koekuit road. Three sappers were with us . . . There were no troops or trenches visible on our left which seemed to be in the air (note: I assume he is referring to the dawn)."

The inhabitants (of Koekuit and Langemarck??) had only left on the two preceding days. Cattle were grazing in the field and pigs were wandering about. There was no sign of the enemy."

My questions are:

1) May someone please tell me which BEF Battalion was actually at Langemarck on October 22, 1914?? I am guessing it was the Glosters, since one of there Captains was killed in action at Koekuit that day, and that would indicate that they were there.

Or was it the Coldsteam Guards which had "drawn in its companies" due to the German capture of Kortekeer Carbaret (a village about 2 miles northeast of Langemarck??

Or both???

2) If anyone has any information on damage that the buildings of Langemarck and Koekuit had taken from the fighitng or shelling on October 22, I would like to see it.

3) Does anyone have any information about these trenches that either the French Territorial forces had dug a few days earlier or this trench that the 26th Field Company, Royal Engineers dug. Is there a trench map of these trenches somewhere??

I imagine the trench the French dug were deep and well made, because the CWGC describes them as "constructed" "lengths of continuous trench."

The Royal Engineers must have arrived at the site between 12:30 am-12:45am, spent at least 15 minutes or so looking for British troops ("[f]or some little time, he (Pritchard) searched for the infantry, but they had gone." The diary says it took 90 minutes for the Glosters to start for Koekuit at 2:30am. It probably took about 30 minutes for the Glosters to arrive, so it would have been around 3:00am the Glosters arrived at Koekuit.

So the trench was worked on for a total of five hours and 15 minutes, with help from at least one of the Gloster platoons for around 3 hrs.

Maybe some of you are in reenactor units and have dug trenches; what sort of trench could be dug in a period of time like that??; remember, they did have sappers, and the trench is described as having a parapet and a floor (but all trenches have floors).

4) Does anyone have any detailed descriptions of the fighting on October 22 at Langemarck or Koekuit?? If you could possible post some of them here or the book titles, I'd greatly appreciate it; I live in the U.S., and while there are some books at the public libraries nearby, there isn't a whole lot, at least in my immediate area. I'd really have to go visit the University of Michigan which is about 40 miles from me to have access to some really excellent sources.

It seems a little odd though, that, if there was fighting at Koekuit / Langemarck on October 22, 1914, there were no British troops in the town of Langemarck or at Koekuit during the evening of the 22nd / 23rd, although Farrar-Hockely does state that the Coldstream Guards had drew in their line because of the German assault of Kortekeer Cabaret.

And if the Glosters had been at Langemarck / Koekuit on October 22, why did it take an hour and a half for the two Gloster platoons to start to set out to Koekuit after the Royal Engineers had first initially sent their messengers???

Also, Gloster Private Barston's description of the area doesn't really sound like a battlefield from the previous day (although that doesn't necessarily mean it wasn't). He doesn't describe any ruined buildings, seeing casualties, and the animals he sees are alive.

Could the fighting around Langemarck actually occurred only on October 23rd and not the 22nd???

5) Where was 3rd Brigade Headquarters located on October 22 and October 23; was it at Hooge Chateau???

6) What were the names of the Brigadier-Generals in charge of the 3rd Brigade and the 1st Guards Brigade???

The German forces opposing the British I am pretty certain were from the 23rd Reserve Army Corps from the 46th Division from the following Regiments: 213 (Schleswig Holstein); 215 (Hanover); 214 (Mecklenburg-Schwerin (+ some from Lubeck and Schleswig-Holstein; and the 216 (Hamburg).

7) I was wondering if anyone can tell me the historic names of these German regiments??; I've found a few websites on the German Imperial Army, but the regiments on those only seem to go up to around 180. These regiments were made up of raw recruits, some college and high schools students, and from Landwehr (national guard) reservists.

8) And how may German soldiers were in a German Army Corps??; The only information I have, from not such a great source, is that the men in a German Army Corps numbered about 40,000 men; so I guess that would be about 20,000 men in a German Division. If anyone knows the exact numbers, please let me know how many men were in a German Corps and Division (each Army Corps was made up of two Divisions.

Time is NOT of the essence, so if you're looking at this months / years from now, I would deeply appreciate any information you are able to give.


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For a start,

The 1Bn Gloucesters was indeed at Koekuit on 22/10/1914, took part in fighting around Koekuit and Gruutezale Farm, driving back German counterattacks from Mangelare. Captain Temple mortally wounded,49 other casualties.

After midnight withdrew to Varna Farm SW of Langemark.


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Hi ,

Consulted another source : 'The Gloucestershire Regiments in the war'

The first action at Koekuit was on 21/10/1914 and not 22/10/1914.

TEMPLE was wounded on 21/01/1014 and dow 23/10/1914

22/10/1914 was a day of comparative rest, the Gloucesters remaining in bivouacs around a farm just South of Hanebeek.


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On 21/10/1914, 'B' Company (captain Radice) occupied Langemark railway station, C company (Captain Temple) pushed through Langemark and along the Koekuit-Staden road.


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On 21/10/1914 it was the 51st Reserve Division that attacked towards Langemark in 4 columns.

The most Northern column consisted of Reserve Infanterie Rgt 234, Reserve Jäger Battaillon 23 and 2 batteries of Reserve Feld Artillerie Rgt 51 ;

Their objectives were : Mangelare, Koekuit, St. Janshoek, Bikschote, Steenstraat. They did not get further than Mangelare.

RIR 234 got decimated by musketry and artillery fire, from an unvisible enemy.

The 46th Reserve Division was clearing Houthulst Forest on 21/10/1914, it attacked towards the Kortebeek on 22/10/1914, at the right flank of 51st Division, to help the 26th Reserve Corps which was completely held up in front of Langemark.

It also seems that regts of 46th and 51st RD got mixed up.


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At Langemark the British troops were relieved by the French in the night of 24/10-25/10/1914.

Pic of Langemark occupied by the French after 1st Battle of Ypres.



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Resumation Gloucesters

21/10/1914 : 1st Division ordered to march to Langemark, and attack from there

3rd Brigade is avanced guard

When Langemark is reached, Dueen's and 1SWB ordered to attack towards Poelkapelle and Poelkapelle station.

Gloucesters are in reserve, but French Cavalry is driven back near Houthulst Forest, exposing left flank of 3rd Brigade.

Gloucesters sent forward as flank guard, company C at Koekuit (Lt.Wetherall), 2 platoons C Company right of Koekuit (Captain Capel).

At noon, first German attack from Mangelare towards positions of Wetherall, lining a ditch facing north.

Captain Temple shot through the right lung and shoulder, Captain Capel received a bullet through teh right eye.

B Company was sent forward to assist left of C company, machine gun scetion also sENt to exposed left flank ( French troops continue to fall back pressed by 46st R.D.)

At 2 p.m. other attack against Koekuit, B Company occupied Gruutesale Farm.

Another German attack at 4 p.m., severe German shelling positions of the Gloucesters.

22/10/1914 : Gloucesters at rest

23/10/1914 : 2 platoons of A Company (Captain Rising) to north of Langemark, in close support of Welch ( Koekuit occupied by the Germans)

At 7.30 am German troops advancing from Koekuit direction Kortebeek

Gloucesters beat off every attack.


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Thanks Cnock for all the great information and the maps you supplied; I really appreciate it a lot.

But I just don't understand why the 1st Glosters would move back from near Koekuit and the train station all the way to Varna farm southwest of Langemarck or the farm south of Hanebeek (which one was it??; was it Varna the night of the 21st, and then they moved to south of Hanebeek the next day??) of Langemarck; it would seem that stationing the troops in the village of Langemarck would make sense, especially since on 10/21/14 the Glosters pushed to the Langemarck train station close to 1/2 a mile west of the town.

The Germans attacked Bixschoote just two miles west of Langemarck at night on 10/21/14.

The Glosters were fortunate to have machine guns. Hockley states "[t]he establishment of machine-guns to each battalion was two--Maxim or Vickers. By this time only about half the battalions had more than one each in action due to shortage of spare parts. There were no light machine-guns in use at this time (Hockley p. 88)."

Do any of your books / information state if the Glosters had two machine guns, or was just one working???

Do you know how large a place Koekuit was, and what was Koekuit's population??; I think I had some statistics about Langemarck at one time; I think in 1914 it had a population in of a few thousand, but it was smaller than Ypres. It isn't described in A Guide To The Western Front (Penguin).

If you have any photos of Koekuit, WWI era or modern, I would like to see them.

Do you know if the Houthulst Forest is on some sort of ridge?? Didn't the German Army have its headquarters and barracks and stationed its artillery in the Houthulst Forest??? I'm wondering if the 51st Reserve Field Artillery Regiment fired their guns from the forest or if they did advance and were stationed behind the advancing German regiments??

Wikipedia has some pretty good information about the Imperial German Army; here's some information about the 26th Reserve Army Corps' 51st Reserve Division: it has the standard four standard regiments: 101 Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade: Regiments: 233 (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen); 234 (Hesse-Kassel); 23 Reserve Jager Battalion (Hanover) and 2 Batteries Reserve FeldArtillerie Regiment 51; 235 and 236 (both Prussian Rhine Province).

According to Wikipedia, the 51st Reserve Division probably had around between 15,000 and 17,500, probably closer to latter since it was still early in the war, and the 4th Army had received new reserve replacements.

You mention that on 10/21/14 the 51st R.D. attacked in 4 columns driving toward Langemarck; you said the 234 Regiment was the most northern column; I imagine the other three regiments in the 51st R.D. made up other 3 columns?? If you know any more about the make up of the other 3 columns, please tell me.

Were these two maps both from the Gloucestershire Regiment book that you mentioned above??

I thank you for your response; I would also be thankful for any more information that anyone else has available. Thanks.

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I don't know whether this sheds any more light on the issue but here is the 1st Battalion, Scots Guards War Diary of the days concerned:

21st Left POPERINGHE at 5.30 a.m. and advanced to attack enemy N. of BOESINGHE in support of 4th A.C. Took up a line of trenches – B and LF at KOEKUIT, C and RF at BIXSCHOOTE. Find a Brigade of French Territorials between BIXSCHOOTE and canal, and several regiments of Cuirassiers.

22nd In trenches. French Territorials attack and try to turn Germans out of BIXSCHOOTE, but fail. They then retire to other side of canal. Camerons, Black Watch and Coldstream heavily attacked, and Camerons lose their trenches.

Killed. 2nd Lieutenant W. B. W. Lawson

Wounded. Lt. G. F. de Teissier wounded.

23rd BIXSCHOOTE. – 2nd Brigade counter attack and retake Cameron trenches, also 250 German prisoners. C Company support their advance.

Best wishes.


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only first map from 'The Gloucestershire Regiment in the war'

second map from German wartime book ( if You want I can look it up)

Koekuit : small hamlet during WW1, population unknown

Varna Farm is the farm South of the Hanebeek, and SW of Langemark

In the night of 21/10 - /22/10/1914 they withdrew UNDER ORDERS to Varna Farm.

(their position had become a pronounced salient)

The 1st Guards Brigade had come up on 21/01/1914 on the left of the 3rd Brigade lining north from Langemark to Steenstraat

(to be continued)


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later on 23/10/1914 :

the remainder of A Company (Gloucestershire) under Captain McLeod at about 2 p.m. to the left to support the Coldstream Guards

By 7 p.m. they reported that they had re-occupied the trenches previously lost by the Guards.

during the evening of the 23/10/1914 the remnants of the 2 platoons of D company under Captain BURN, with the M.G.section, took over the defences of the trenches on the left of the Koekuit road. Before relieve was possible many men of D Company sheltered in the northermost houses of Langemark.

One section was knocked out by a direct hit on a cottage.

The rest of the battalion in the mean time was in reserve in its old position SW of Langemark.


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other intented attacks on 21/10/1914

2nd column :

one battalion of RIR 236, 3rd batterie RFAR 51, from railway station Poelkapelle , to Goed ter Veste (farm), Weidendrift, Kortekeer and Steenstraat

3rd column :

2 bns RIR 236, 4th batterie RFAR 51, from north side Poelkapelle to north side of Langemark and further to Het Sas

4rd column :

RIR 235, RFAR 51, Reserve Pionier Kompagnie 51, divisional bridgebuilding section, from Poelkapelle to southern side of Langemark, and further to Pilkem and Boezinge

RIR 233 and 2 batteries of RFAR 51 at disposal of commanding general.


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Koekuit, Langemark, Poelkapelle station, Poelkapelle

detail British map, Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton, 1911


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Houthulst Forest was lying in front of a ridge ( Westrosebeke - Staden - Terrest - Klerken, max elevation 45 meters)

Houthulst Forest : elevation max. 20 mtrs above sea level

Koekuit : 15 mtrs

Langemark : 10 mtrs

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Casualties in Battle of Langemark :

1 Bn Coldstream Guards : 200

Scots Guards : 50


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Thanks for the information you supplied; yes, any information about what happened these days of October 21-23, 1914 would really help.

I have some questions.

Do you know how many 1st Battalion Scots Guards were sent to Langemarck??; it seems it wasn't the entire battalion because from the information you gave, it was split: one part went to Bixschoote, the other to Langemarck.

Was this a small or large force??; how many Scots Guards were sent to both areas, if you know, but especially Langemarck???

It's the first time I heard the Scots Guards were specifically at Langemarck (well, Koekuit), though I know the 1st Guards Brigade was stationed to the left of Langemarck.

When you say the Scots Guards were B, LF, at Koekuit I assume that means Left Flank and Behind of Koekuit (as in Reserve)??

And the two officer casualties you mentioned; they were from the Scots Guards right, and not from the Black Watch or Camerons??


Thanks again for all the great information.

I wanted to ask you some more questions.

In your second post, "Resumation Gloucesters," you mention the Germans advancing from the hamlet of Mangelare to Koekuit, and the Glosters defending with Lt. Wetherall in a "ditch" facing north.

Is that the word your source uses, "ditch," and not "trench"??? I just want to make sure, because from the CWGC site, they mentioned that this was probably the only area in the Ypres Salient that had "constructed" "continuous lines of trench" which were dug by French Territorial troops sometime before this battle on October 21.

Since they were "constructed" "continuous lines of trench" that would seem to indicate that they were more substantial than a ditch. That doesn't mean it wasn't a ditch, but I would just like you to double-check on that.

The soldier's diary I mentioned above, on October 23, he indicates that there were trenches somewhere to the left of where their units were; but Barston also mentions a ditch.

The second map from the German text is difficult to read; I find that in addition to the computer's magnifier, I find that using a magnifying glass also helps; but it is still hard to read.

Here's the name of the towns I was able to figure out:

Going inwards from the upper left corner:







Draaibank Papygoed

St. Jean Mangelaere




Am I right?? Which ones did I get wrong??

If you could also give me those German units, from left to right, which are shown on the map attacking Kortekeer-Cabaret I'd appreciate it. That could come in handy later.

And what does that map key say in German??

It says something like: "The troops of the 46 Reserve Division went through a different route."


(Bold line) German

( Dashes & dotted line) March path of the 18 Jager Battalion

Battle line of the 18th Jager Battalion


And what does the inscription in the bottom left corner say?? I can't make it out.

Now, where did the German regiment 234, which I guess was the 1st column, come from??? I believe there had been a German attempt to breakthrough the Belgian held town of Dixmunde a few miles to the north of Bixschoote. Did the 234 I.R. come through the forest. They had taken Mangelare, apparently without any resistance, and then attacked Koekuit???

Where was the 234 I.R. orginal starting point on October 21, 1914??? I just have a few more additional questions about the German columns, but those will have to wait.

The casualties you mentioned of the Coldstream Guards and Scots Guards; were those the total for just the day of October 21, of the entire Battle of Langemarck, which I guess historians date October 21-24, 1914???

Also, if anyone has anymore information about the Coldstreams Guards, that would be great; I'd like to know if they also, like the Scots Guards, were at Koekuit.

From the Hockley history and Cnock's information, I'm picturing them defending the road from Langemarck past the train station up to Steenstraate. That isn't Langemarck of Koekuit proper, but I guess it is close enough to include them in the Battle of Langemarck.

And the 2nd Welch Battalion??? I've tried to find a regimental website for them, but had no luck; maybe they were reorganized or merged with another unit sometime after WWI.

Does anyone know which contemporary British Army regiment's website I could go to in order to find out more about them???

Also, does anyone know where 3rd Brigade's Headquarters was located during these days??? Was it at Hooge Chateau??

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Some answers,

I don't think that the H.Q. of 3rd Brigade was at Hooge, as the Briagde came via Elverdinge, Boezinge and Pilkem to Langemark.

Hooge is at the Menin road, which was not in the sector of the 3rd Brigade

quote from ' The Gloucestershire Rgt...'

'About midday the enemy launched his first attack from Mangelare. This was promptly brought to a standstill by Lieutenant Wetherall's men, who were lining a DITCH facing north.'

As the French front retreated, the Gloucesters were attacked from the direction Forest of Houthulst, which was not the expected direction(North) the Germans to attack.


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Casualties Coldstream abd Scots Guards :whole battle of Langemark


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The regiments on second map, from Bikschote to Langemark are :

RIR 209, RIR 211, Jäg Bn 18, RIR 215, RIR 216, RIR 214;

Regiments of 46 RD got mixed up.


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  • 4 weeks later...

1st (Guards) Brigade - Brig Frizclarnce VC

From the War Diary of the 1Bn Cameron Highlanders (1st Brig)

21st Oct 1914/22nd Oct

Marched out of POPERINGHE at 5.15pm, and proceeded to the X roads south pf the ?il a HAANEDE CR.

Here two companies were detached to watch the the FORET d' HOUTHULST on the left flank between

BIXSCHOOTE and LANGEMARCK with orders to watch the crossing of the SAINT JEAN KORTEBECK.

Within an hour this detachment was ?"mxxand"? by the whole 1/Bn Cameron Hghrs. The enemy had been

located all round. There was a little firing on both sides. A patrol brought in 3 German prisoners who had

been wounded.

The enemy attacked in force after dark and we retired (My emphasis). The composition of our force now

being from Rt to Left Northamptons, Coldstream Guards, Cameron Hghrs. This force attempted to re occupy

the trenches we had left ^ but attempt^ was abandoned and in the morning the British force was increased

by the arrival of the following Scots Guards Black Watch (?), North Staffords.

The line was held by the main body while the 60th Rifles worked round the Germans right. During this A Company

of the Queens captured a farm ?waxxxter? last night taking many prisoners

A general advance was ordered about midday which swept the Germans out of the trenches

These trenches were found worthless owing to snipers and shell fire, so we retired to a position a little nearer.

This withdrawal was ?xxxxxxx? by another attack by the German who re occupied the trenches without delay.

Casualties A Coy

Killed 2 (of which one was my relation - Cpl Nigel Graham Age 19)

Wounded 10

Missing 74

Hope the above will be of some help in getting an idea as to what was happening on the Right Flank of 3rd Brigade.

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  • 3 years later...

Good morning everyone,

I chanced upon this site whilst browsing yesterday and,as usual,typed in my grandfathers number to see what came up and lo and behold I find him quoted here.His is the account of the first Langemarck in 1914,his name is incorrectly given as Barston he was in fact 8168 Sam `Benny`Barton.He enrolled in 1905 under the name of Jonathan Samuel Barton,Jonathan being his elder brothers christian name who was over 18 Sam wasn`t yet of age.He joined the Gloucesters in Sheffield 1905 and after training was posted to India,then Malta being discharged after 7 years.Joining the Post Office as a counter clerk and doing very well for himself he must have pretty surprised to have been called back to service when war broke out.

I have his typed account of the first encounter with German troops and it is well worth buying`Death of an Army`if only for that,he stayed in F&F until 1916 returning to the UK and staying there until the end of the war.I don`t know exactly what he was doing at the depot,but I have photos of recruits training in shallow trenches.He stayed in the regiment until he retired in 1926 with my mother and her elder sister both being born in Horfield Barracks.They both used to reminisce about bugle calls punctuating their days and horses being trained nearby.Retiring as a WO2 he settled the family in East Yorkshire and died in 1954 of lung cancer brought on by a lifelong heavy smoking habit exacerbated by his choice of smoke Turkish Abdullahs.

As a child the house was an army shrine,his 1907 bayonet was hidden behind the pantry door,blank cartridges painted red in chargers were up in the attic,the walls were covered with regimental photos,Sam in the hockey,tug of war,rugby,football and cricket teams.A large photo of the officers and NCOs was surmounted by his red sash and lying across the top frame his stick.Gloucester stuff was simply everywhere.I wish I had some of it now!I have his discharge book,his original attestation form,the few surviving postcards he sent home,his Old Contemptible Association badge and some of his medals,my cousins have the remainder.He died when I was 5, a lovely gentle,quiet gentle man and I it hard to equate him with the man who fired 600 aimed rounds at those attacking troops in 1914.

Our elder son was named after him and despite his dying 57 years ago I think of him often.

RIP Grand Dad

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A quick post script,recently I visited the Menin Gate looking for Jonathan Bartons name.Climbing the short steps on the right hand side leaving Ypres.I looked down and saw the names Hippesley and Yalland who were officers in Sams platoon at Langemarck as I read the names of the others I recognised them all from his account.Strange feeling indeed,I visisted Langemarck looking for the actual site of the engagement but as I had left Sams account with the handdrawn map at home I couldn`t find it.I walked down the Koekhuit road but couldn`t see the sunken road.I wonder`what up in the air`means as well.

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Do you know how large a place Koekuit was, and what was Koekuit's population??; I think I had some statistics about Langemarck at one time; I think in 1914 it had a population in of a few thousand, but it was smaller than Ypres. It isn't described in A Guide To The Western Front (Penguin).

If you have any photos of Koekuit, WWI era or modern, I would like to see them.

'Koekuit' was not a real village, it was more a collection of houses spread in the area. It became a village in the 1930's with the building of a church near the local school. It was called 'Madonna' from then on.

Some links of 'Madonna' today:

- The Madonna and St-Julien Elementary school.

- On this site, you can find an aerial picture of 'Madonna' on Luchtfoto

- The (new) website of De Madonna

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