Jump to content
Great War Forum

Remembered Today:

Sign in to follow this  
Borden Battery

CEF Study Group - 1 Jan 2019 List of Recommended Great War Websites

Recommended Posts

Borden Battery

Ottoman Aviation SquadronsWikipedia Website

A rudimentary outline of the Ottoman Empire’s Great War aviation. More research into this aspect of Great War aviation is required – specific websites will be sought. [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Aviation_Squadrons

 

Gallipoli Association – To Remember To Honour To Study

It is a 1,000-member association which originated in 1969. “Our key focus today is education, in particular of the young of all those countries that once took part in this tragic campaign. By raising public awareness of the Gallipoli Campaign, encouraging and facilitating study, we keep the memory of the campaign alive, ensuring that all who served in it, and those who gave their lives, are not forgotten.” Website contains a wealth of information regarding the campaign, study materials and a journal.  A welcome addition to this element of the Great War.  [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://www.gallipoli-association.org/

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Dever Mayfly
On 08/02/2019 at 20:49, Borden Battery said:

Canada’s Siberian Expedition - Экспедиция Канады в Сибирь

 

The Siberian Expedition Virtual Exhibition and Digital Archive created by the University of Victoria Humanities Computing and Media Centre tells the forgotten story of the 4,200 Canadians who served in Vladivostok.  This tri-lingual learning resource combines the accessible Story with a comprehensive Digital Archive – preserving and providing access to more than 2,200 archival photographs, documents, and works of war art on this chaotic moment in the history of Canada, Russia, and the world. Learning Resources have also been developed for students and educators. [Recommended by Avidgenie] [CEF Study Group - Updated Oct 2018]

 

http://www.siberianexpedition.ca/index.php?lang=english

 

 

 

Many thanks Borden Battery for this link

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

The Forgotten Army – British Indian Army’s Contribution

The centenary of the Great War of 1914-18, the ‘Empire, Faith & War’ project aims to commemorate the largely forgotten contribution and experiences of the Sikhs. One ambitious project is the development of a “Soldier Map” data base of currently 8,000 Sikh soldiers from the Great War.  [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

http://www.empirefaithwar.com/tell-their-story/putting-sikh-soldiers-on-the-map/soldier-map

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

Chemical Warfare Websites - Part 23

_________________________________________________________________________

 

Medical Manual of Chemical Warfare
The Medical Manual of Chemical Warfare website is based on the "publication by His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1941 Edition, and is based on data from 1918. A detailed account of the general effects of gases used during war and the appearance, physical properties, effect, treatment and decontamination of the vesicant gases, Mustard and Lewisite. Chapters VIII and IX have been omitted as these relate to gas warfare on civilians and Armed Forces during World War 2." [Parent Link is WWI Documents, Medical Front, http://www.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/]

[CEF Study Group - June 2017]
http://www.vlib.us/medical/HMSO/contents.htm

 

Fritz Haber - Wikipedia Site

Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development for synthesizing ammonia, important for fertilizers and explosives. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. He has also been described as the "father of chemical warfare" for his work developing and deploying chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I. [CEF Study Group - Sept 2017]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Haber

 

Weapons of War - Poison Gas

A short but concise summary of the use of poison gas during the Great War on the firstworldwar.com website. [CEF Study Group - Sept 2017]

http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/gas.htm

 

Chemical Warfare and Medical Response During World War I - American Journal of Public Health

" The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914–1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war."  This journal article provides both a history and insight into the use of poisonous gases. [CEF Study Group - Oct 2017]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2376985/pdf/0980611.pdf

 

A Brief History of Chemical War - Science History Institute

The Institute collects, preserves and interprets the history of chemistry, chemical engineering, and the life sciences. Headquartered in Philadelphia, with offices in California and Europe, the Institute houses an archive and a library for historians and researchers.  This item on their website provides a succinct summary of chemical weapons over the past 2,500 years.  [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/magazine/a-brief-history-of-chemical-war

 

Gas in The Great WarUniversity of Kansas Medical Centre

James Patton, BS, Military Historian, U.S. Army Veteran, and WW-I Feature Writer

A short. distilled medical essay regarding the types of poison gas used in the Great War and their lethality. Gives the reader a quick appreciation on the topic.  Other Great War items are also discussed on this part of a larger medical centre website. [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

http://www.kumc.edu/wwi/essays-on-first-world-war-medicine/index-of-essays/medicine/gas-in-the-great-war.html

 

Fritz Haber (1868-1934) – Biography from the Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Published in part in Angewandte Chemie (International Edition) 44, 3957 (2005) and 45, 4053 (2006)

A succinct biographical sketch of the man’s personal history, brilliant career as a Nobel Prize chemist for synthesizing ammonia for fertilizer, and later his descent into the purview of war crimes with his active participation in the use of chlorine gas, and later the development of phosgene gas and finally mustard gas. Haber was also active in supervising the tactical use of his poison gases in battle.  The “Haber Rule” regarding efficiencies in debilitating the enemy with various concentrations of poison gas. Zyklon B, developed by the Haber Institute, was later used by the Nazi in their extermination camps – several members of Haber’s extended family died from this poison gas. [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de/history/Friedrich_HaberArticle.pdf

 

Fritz Haber - 11min History Channel video clip

The life and legacy of Fritz Haber, a German Nobel Laureate – the father of synthetic ammonia for fertilizer and explosives; and later gas warfare; first chlorine gas, phosgene gas and finally mustard gas. Ironically, his research lead to a hydrogen-cyanide pesticide called Zyklon.  Zyklon B was later used by the Nazis - Haber was a Jewish convert to Christianity but many of his extended Jewish family were later exterminated during the Second World War by the Zyklon B gas developed at his laboratory. [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXi-ZTzbLus

 

Gas warfare in the First World War - Dr Alan Brown (2013)

A disturbing but compelling documentary on the development of gas warfare in the Great War.  It's only really suitable for students aged 14 or over, but it will prove extremely useful for those studying this period and the First World War. [47 minutes] [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_QxtB6s-4oM

 

Gas Warfare - Thomas I. Faith - International Encyclopedia of the First World War

Gas warfare is a method of war that employs weapons that are designed to cause casualties primarily through the use of harmful chemical agents. The First World War constitutes the most extensive incidence of gas warfare in the 20th century, and poison gas remains associated with the horrors of trench warfare in public memory.” [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/gas_warfare

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

WWI Eastern Front Foto - Nachlass eines Soldaten

This unique website presents the private photographs of both an officer and German military archive photographs of the Eastern Front during the Great War. Most would appear to be unpublished and without notation. Several aerial photographs. The images are unfamiliar and compelling and can be viewed individually or part of a slide show. Recommended for something quite different. [A Jens-Olaf Walter's Website]

[CEF Study Group - August 2017]

http://www.flickr.com/photos/65817306@N00/sets/486575/show/

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

Laurier Military Centre - Canadian Corps Transportation Logistics - Dr. Andrew Iarocci, February, 2010

Presentation covers the behind “The Front” transportation and logistics transportation and procurement of the Canadian Corps.  Prior to the First World War, the Canadian Army did not possess even one truck – all horses. Gasoline shortages hampered truck utilization between the railhead and the supply depots. Horse casualties from all causes were very high. Lack of road space for transportation. Light railways emerge and evolve into 13 Canadian battalions – 15,000 men or a “5th division”, however, are not part of the Canadian Corps. Various transportation elements are not integrated.  Civilian and military intermix of management present issues.[CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://vimeo.com/11166107

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

Here is a real gem of a website, especially for newer members of the Study Group who are trying to figure out the various documents on their soldier's personal files - by Brett Payne who is a long-time member of this Group.  Borden Battery

 

*** The CEF Paper Trail - An Unofficial Guide to the Official Canadian Army Service Records from the Great War
This project involves collating examples of each type of document found in a soldier's World War I Canadian Expeditionary Force Service Records. The guide shows researchers what they may expect in a soldiers' service records. It's important to be aware that you will only find a selection of these records in your particular CEF soldier's file.  A very well-done summary of representative documents and invaluable for any student of the Great War.
[Brett Payne Website] [CEF Study Group – Updated Jan 2019]
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~brett/cef/cefpapertrail.html#top

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

Italy in the Great War - International Encyclopedia of the First World War

The article examines the Italian losses in the Great War 1914-1918. Regarding the military, indications are given about the losses in relation to the population and the number of men mobilized, the distribution per year, the causes, the different war fronts and the various units and special forces, as well as the geographical origin. As regards the civilians, consideration has been given to the victims of air and naval bombing, maritime war, the population of the territories occupied by the enemy, and, finally, the mortality caused by the "Spanish" influenza during the last months of the conflict, which produced more victims in the population and troops than the instruments of war had done in the preceding years.” [CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/war_losses_italy

 

Battle in the Dolomites – Italian Alps

The Most Treacherous Battle of World War I Took Place in the Italian Mountains” – an interesting article with maps and photographs online by the Smithsonian Institute. Interesting material on an obscure but trying battle.

[CEF Study Group – Feb 2019]

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/most-treacherous-battle-world-war-i-italian-mountains-180959076/

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
David Filsell

I was unaware of the term aboriginals in Canada. Was it/is it in common useage?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

Hello David

 

Historically, “Indian” or “Aboriginal” were the common nomenclature.  In more recent times the terms 'Aboriginal, Registered or Treaty Indian' terms were as per The Indian Act. It is now becoming common practice for the “Indians” to use the term “First Nation”, however, I am not certain if this new term is used in the treaty legal documents.  I have a few First Nations as clients in my private planning practice and our business contracts use the term "XXXX First Nation".

 

 

Regarding any documents or websites referenced in the “List of Recommended Great War Websites”; I always defer for the exact historic term used so as not to confuse historic citations.  Hope this answers your question.

 

Regards

 Borden Battery

 

Edited by Borden Battery
Insert paragraph returns

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery
Here are some of the more active discussions forums related to the Great War - readers will note the Great War Forum is part of the bigger picture. This material is all from the 205 page list of Recommended Great War Websites which will be published on or before 1 March 2019 by the CEF Study Group discussion forum. This List (Adobe pdf) is available from me at no charge. Members are also welcome to forward this List to any other interested parties - it is all part of the "Open Access" concept being promoted on the Internet.

If there are any other Great War discussion websites which should be considered - please advise me and I will research and assess them. Borden Battery

Great War Discussion Forums - Part 7
__________________________________________________ _______________

Canadian Expeditionary Force Study Group - Discussion Forum
The Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) and all aspects of its involvement in the Great War is the focus of this discussion forum - the group formed in October 2004 around the "Canadian Pals" from the Great War Forum. Membership is about 1,140 plus active members and some 108,500 postings. The site is linked to several member websites and includes Great War Project databases, The Matrix and a comprehensive list of Recommended Great War Websites. This list of recommended Great War Websites was created and is maintained by a member of the CEF Study Group as a research tool. Emphasis is on the research and study of the Canadian Corps. Note the URL address has change in 2012. [CEF Study Group - Updated Feb 2019]
http://cefresearch.ca/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=15788

The Great War Forum - The Long, Long Trail
The Great War Forum includes a 32,000+ member discussion forum with over 2.1 million+ postings. Emphasis is on the British Expeditionary Force (BEF)with some material on the CEF and AIF discussed. A companion website contains information the Great War. The greatest resource from this site are the earlier postings with detailed documentation; be sure to use the “Search” button to access a wealth of information. A great deal of information has also been archived for this site. [CEF Study Group - Updated Dec 2018] [Originated by Chris Baker]

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/

The Aerodrome - Forum
This website has about 9,300 active members with approximately 590,000 postings. It represents an extensive documentation of the air war including cross-indexing of aircraft, aces, serial numbers of aircraft and pilot victories. Emphasis is visual and with visual statistics. The discussion forum includes postings with discussion threads tending to be on specific aircraft and airmen rather than historic discussion. Therefore, an excellent site for researching specific topics on Great War aerial combat. [Recommendation by Brett Payne / emma gee]
[CEF Study Group - Updated December 2018]
http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/

21sters - The 21st Battalion CEF Discussion Group
This specialized discussion group facilitates specific exchanges associated with 21st Canadian Expeditionary Force Battalion and its men. The original 21st Battalion CEF was organized in Kingston Ontario during the Great War under Lt Col W.S. Hughes an incorporated men and officers of Eastern Ontario. It was also known as the Eastern Ontario Regiment. This special group was formed on 27 August 2004 and currently has about 220 members.
[CEF Study Group – Updated Oct 2018]
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/21sters/info

Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog [5,900 members and 376,000 postings] [Language is Dutch]
Dit Nederlands talige forum richt zich op alle aspecten betreffende de Eerste Wereldoorlog en kent een groot aantal leden, voornamelijk uit Nederland en Belgisch Vlaanderen. Alle aspecten van deze oorlog komen aan de orde en het forum kent een zeer uitgebreide lijst van relevante boeken en web sites. De voertaal is overwegend Nederlands, echter, er worden ook regelmatig artikelen in de Engelse taal geplaatst. Gezien het feit dat dit forum pas 15 maanden geleden opgericht is, kan men stellen dat het een onstuimige groei heeft doorgemaakt. Dit is des te opvallender, als men zich realiseert dat Nederland niet deelgenomen heeft aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog. [Editor – GrandsonMichael]
[CEF Study Group – Updated December 2018]
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.n...forum.php?f=29

Picklehaubes.com Forum
The Picklehaubes.com Forum provides a German perspective of the Great War and begins to provide both a balance and another source of information on the Great War. The forum has approximately 2,536 members and about 83,500 postings. The common themes include the study and collection of Imperial German headgear but also covers other topics from the German perspective of the Great War. [Recommended by Chris Dale-German Colonial Uniforms Website] [CEF Study Group - Oct 2019]
http://pickelhaubes.com/bb/

Axis History Forum
This is an apolitical forum for discussions on the Axis nations, as well as the First and Second World Wars in general hosted by Marcus Wendel's Axis History Factbook in cooperation with Michael Miller's Axis Biographical Research, Christoph Awender's WW2 day by day, Dan Reinbold's Das Reich and Christian Ankerstjerne's Panzerworld. About 68,000 members and 2,100,000 postings. [CEF Study Group - Oct 2018]
https://forum.axishistory.com/

Scottish War Memorials Discussion Forum
This new discussion forum is intended to showcase and discuss the many different War Memorials of Scotland. Formed on 14 December 2006, there are currently 4,100 members and 86,000 postings. The forum is structured to direct postings to several identified Scottish memorials. Memorials include the Great War and subsequent wars. [Recommended by DerekR-CEFSG] [CEF Study Group – Updated Oct 2018]
http://warmemscot.s4.bizhat.com/

British & Commonwealth Military Badge Forum
This specialized discussion forum has approximately 11,600 members and 390,000 postings associated with British and Commonwealth military badges. There are sections for specific badge groupings, a glossary of terms, a list of recommended dealers, a bibliography for reference, approximately 14,000 images of military insignia, and together with 23,000 images embedded within forum posts, which together, form a considerable illustrated reference of military badges. [CEF Study Group -Updated Oct 2018]
http://www.britishbadgeforum.com/forums/
Borden Battery is online nowReport Post   Edit/Delete Message

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

There is a wealth of collected and catalogued information, both formal and informal, within the hundreds of Great War websites on this List.  Here is the Tom Morgan website; perhaps read the article by Martin Middlebrook on his book entitled "The First Day of the Battle of the Somme".  Borden Battery

 

Hellfire Corner Great War - Home of Tom Morgan Military Books

A significant number of short articles by a range of authors, book listings and other Great War website links. The book listing is extensive featuring the book cover, short abstract and price.  The site includes battlefield guides for today, war memorials, individual articles on specific soldiers and general interest articles by a wide range of international researchers. Note URL address change - site has been hacked and is being rebuilt in the present – a new uploaded version has been applied to about 80 percent of the website. A similar event hit the CEF Study Group many years ago and the effort to rebuild what was destroyed is understood. [CEF Study Group – Updated Jan 2019]

http://www.hellfirecorner.co.uk/

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

More items from the upcoming 1 March 2019 edition of the Recommended Great War List of Recommended Great War Websites.  Borden Battery

The National Film Board WW1 Film Project    
The National Film Board of Canada (NFB) continues a program to digitize Canadian films from the Great War. A collection of films that document Canada's participation in World War I, including training exercises, major battles, aviation footage and the war effort in Canada and include the following film clips:

Battle of Arras
This third short film on the Battle of Arras shows artillery fire, troop movements and several explosions on the battlefield. German prisoners can also be seen in the trenches, as well as enemy bombs falling on the town of Arras.  https://www.nfb.ca/film/battle_of_arras_3/

Front Lines - Faith and Hope
This short documentary made in 2008 reflects on how religion and faith became a solace to many Canadians serving in the First World War.  https://www.nfb.ca/film/front-lines-faith-and-hope/

Front Lines - Nurses at the Front
This short documentary made in 2008 looks at the role of nurses and health workers during wartime. Long days, brutal injuries and both sad and triumphant outcomes are part of their reality.
https://www.nfb.ca/film/front-lines-nurses-at-the-front/

Front Lines - The Life of the Soldier
This short documentary made in 2008 looks at the gruelling life of a soldier in the First World War. The letters home speak of the physical and emotional hardships and the mental strain of what they witness on the battlefield.  https://www.nfb.ca/film/front-lines-the-life-of-the-soldier/

Front Lines - The Officer's Role
This short documentary made in 2008 looks at First World War officers. They often wrote reports and updates to headquarters.  https://www.nfb.ca/film/front-lines-the-officers-role/

Front Lines - The Trenches
These short documentaries look at life in the trenches in the First World War. On the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of the year 2008, 90 years will have passed since the signing of the Armistice ending the Great War in Europe.  
https://www.nfb.ca/film/the_trenches/

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

Here is an older website from the indefatigable Marc Leroux which will be familiar to older members of the Forum but new for the more recent members. The Great Canadian War Project has recently been adopted and taken over by the University of Victoria - lets hope the tradition continues under the U of Victoria. Borden Battery

*** Canadian Great War Project
This massive database and reference website enable one to research Canadians who participated in the Great War – perhaps the first place to begin any serious research. The website is very extensive and the features are beyond a short abstract - the reader should allocate several hours to fully appreciate it. At present there are over 182,700 database records of individual soldiers in the database with more being added on a regular basis by volunteers. In addition, a significant data base of some Nominal Rolls has also been developed. Not all entries have full details but these are being built up soldier by soldier. In addition, there is a “GrandsonMicheal” section which greatly facilitates the access and reading of many of the digitized CEF war diaries and now a section of BEF war diaries. Marc Leroux is always looking for a few dedicated volunteers to assist in expanding the records base. One of the premier websites on the List – an alternative to the Library and Archives Canada website. [CEF Study Group – Updated December 2018]
http://www.canadiangreatwarproject.com

Extra Search Engine Option https://cgwp.uvic.ca/
This additional element from the Canadian Great War Project. “Welcome to the largest fully searchable database dedicated to the Canadian men and woman that served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) during the Great War (1914-1919). This site, like any site on the Great War, relies heavily on the documents database of Library and Archives Canada and other government agencies. What distinguishes this project is the transcription of those records and the normalization of their data elements by the tireless work of our members, students and supporters. Whether you want to look at data on farmers from Ontario or bakers from British Columbia you can rely on stable HISCO mapping of the entries reported on attestation forms. This site evolved from the personal research work of Marc Leroux into the story of his grandfather in the Great War. That search expanded to the soldiers from his town, and then to soldiers from the area. Over time, a host of other researchers with similar interests joined in and, thanks to Marc’s technical skill, the Canadian Great War Project came to life. Over the following twelve years, contributors from across Canada and around the world continued to transcribe attestation papers, war diaries and other primary source documents. Site members added letters and images and eagerly shared information with any who asked. Linkages were developed to a wide range of other Great War sites.

As the centennial of the Great War approached, it became apparent that over the long term, a permanent home was needed to preserve this growing national treasure house of data. That home would need to demonstrate both a strong commitment to the history of Canada in the Great War, and the technical expertise to continue to improve the usefulness of the site the community of users. The Library of the University of Victoria and the Department of History proved a good match
.”
[CEF Study Group – Jan 2019]

For example, typing in “RFC” brings up 51 soldiers on the data base. These soldiers/airmen can then have their personal records accessed directly from the provided “Hot Link”.
https://cgwp.uvic.ca/search.php?all=RFC ... oe,rgm,rnk

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

Another addition to the CEF Study Group List.  Borden Battery

 

British Journal for Military History (BJMH)

The BJMH is a pioneering Open Access, peer-reviewed journal that brings high quality scholarship in military history to an audience beyond academia – this is a new and emerging trend. "The birth of the British Journal for Military History will be as welcome as it is long overdue" - Professor Sir Michael Howard.  The reader, after a free registration, can search the data base using several parameters and then download the article in pdf format. A scholarship level journal with access to the serious reader of military history. An example of a search is listed below:

 

Vol 3, No 2 (2017)

A.J.A. Morris, Reporting the First World War: Charles Repington, The Times and the Great War                      PDF

Gary Sheffield

 

Vol 2, No 2 (2016)

Tim Gale, The French Army’s Tank Force and Armoured Warfare in the Great War: the Artillerie Spéciale    PDF

Hew Strachan

 

Vol 3, No 3 (2017)

Xu Guoqi, Asia and the Great War: A Shared History. With a foreword by Jay Winter                                        PDF

Michael W. Charney

 

Vol 1, No 2 (2015)

Peter Chasseaud. Mapping the First World War: The Great War Through Maps From 1914 to 1918.              PDF

Christopher Newton

 

[CEF Study Group – Jan 2019]

https://bjmh.org.uk/index.php/bjmh

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

The fully updated 1 March 2019 edition of the "Recommended Great War Websites" is now available.  Over 200 pages of screened websites catalogued into 31 chapters.  No charge for the List.  Send me a Private Message. Borden Battery

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Borden Battery

The 1 March 2019 edition of the list of "Recommended Great War Websites" is still available for the asking.  No charge.

 

Work has begun on the next edition which will be available about 1 January 2019

 

This CEF Study Group discussion forum initiative is part of the global approach to an "open source" for sharing information across several interest groups.

 

Borden Battery

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

Sign in to follow this  

×
×
  • Create New...