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Conscientious Objectors

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mcnab
In a sense, no by definition, because without conscription, there was nothing to object to. You simply did not have to join up.

To redefine the question, there may well have been men who joined the RAMC because they were not prepared to bear arms, but wanted to serve. But I do not see how they could have been real COs without conscription.

Thanks for the replies:

Before conscription, there was still the peer pressure and the patriotic posters which must have made some young men feel obligated to join up, which conflicted with their beliefs. The Townsend link is one such example, but interesting to read the opinions that this course of action was rare.

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Magnumbellum

Was there a list kept of conscientious objectors?

My g grandad was apparently excused from fighting as an objector but worked for the RAMC. Would there be a specific place to look for him or would it be better to just use the usual sources?

Thanks,

Tonia

The only complete listing of all conscientious objectors would have been the Military Service Tribunal records. However, since the majority of those were detroyed in 1921 by order of the Ministry of Health as successor to the Local Government, the Peace Pledge Union has for some years been attempting to fill the gap in recorded history by compiling atabase of every CO of whom it has any trace - over 4000 WW1 names so far, out of a total of 16,000 WW1 COs. To check whether a name is already in the database, or to contribute a name, contact the PPU archivist: archives@ppu.org.uk

The archivist can also often advise on sources and avenues for research on individual COs.

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George Armstrong Custer

From the Dundee Courier & Advertiser, 21 November, 1918:

"Conchies" cannot be released from work on which they are engaged

The Government has had under consideration the question of the disposal of the men employed under the Committee on Employment of Conscientious Objectors, and has decided that it is not possible at present to release these men from the restrictions imposed on them, thereby giving them a priority in returning to civil life over fellow countrymen serving in the Forces.

The men will therefore remain at the work on which they are at present employed.

The suspension of call-up notices by the Ministry of National Service does not affect the recall of men from Army Reserve W. to the Colours. Any man employed under the Committee on Employment of Conscientious Objectors who leaves his work without permission will be recalled from Army Reserve W. to service with the Colours.

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Magnumbellum

PALS

I have been in touch with the BRISTOL RECORDS OFFICE; my man has left 24 boxes of material, not all about pacifism..These have not been catalogued completely;.I shall have to work through them a piece at a time.This I will do, but don't hold your breath waiting for the results. Be assured that in the fullness of time I shall present them.

CHEERS,

JOHN biggrin.gif

I wonder whether, after nearly six years, you are in a position at least to present an interim report. Additionally or alternatively, if you care to give your man's name, there may be someone on the Forum who has some knowledge of the man.

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MichaelBully

Thanks for posting- fascinating. Something I hadn't thought about. I can see the contemporary argument that whilst men in the Forces were not de-mobbed yet, and Prisoners of War not home, it would be considered bad form to discharge the CO's from war work. Regards, Michael Bully

From the Dundee Courier & Advertiser, 21 November, 1918:

"Conchies" cannot be released from work on which they are engaged

The Government has had under consideration the question of the disposal of the men employed under the Committee on Employment of Conscientious Objectors, and has decided that it is not possible at present to release these men from the restrictions imposed on them, thereby giving them a priority in returning to civil life over fellow countrymen serving in the Forces.

The men will therefore remain at the work on which they are at present employed.

The suspension of call-up notices by the Ministry of National Service does not affect the recall of men from Army Reserve W. to the Colours. Any man employed under the Committee on Employment of Conscientious Objectors who leaves his work without permission will be recalled from Army Reserve W. to service with the Colours.

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Magnumbellum

What actually happened in practice was that, apart from some early releases on health grounds, COs both in prison and on the Home Office Scheme were released in April 1919. A few COs were held in prison until August 1919.

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MichaelBully

Thanks for the information, always impressed by how much knowledge GWF members have. I have sent an e mail to the Peace Pledge Union archivist to see if they have information on Hove CO's. But realise that sooner or later, I will have to start going through local newspapers of the time.

What actually happened in practice was that, apart from some early releases on health grounds, COs both in prison and on the Home Office Scheme were released in April 1919. A few COs were held in prison until August 1919.

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Ivor Lee

Interestingly those CO's in the NCC were not demobilized until after April 1919.

There were still over 1300 men in the NCC in December 1919 and nearly 500 in January 1920.

According to Army Records these men were demobilized in February 1920

Ivor

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Clear Bell

Very interested in seeing the photograph mentioned in an ancient post above of 4 conscientious objectors at Dyce, one of whom is Charles Reuben Dyce. Does any one have a copy or know where I could see it. I am doing some research into art students during WW1 and he is one of them!

Thanks

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seaJane

Where did he study? If you can find that out the college probably has an archive.

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Magnumbellum
This postcard has just re-surfaced in my collection.

It demonstrates how "Alternativist" Conscientious Objectors were sent all over the country to work. To Scotland if English, and vice versa. I don't think that a distinction was made between English, Scottish and Welsh C.O.s

The photo of these four men was taken in 1917 at Dyce in Aberdeenshire. IIRC they were helping to build/repair the local roads.

Left to right

Charles Reuben Bicknell (Brighton)

Walter Futcher (Islington)

Willie Kippax (Huddersfield)

George Glasscock (Croydon)

I apologise for not responding earlier to the mention of this postcard, but with numerous other points of detail raised on the thread, it was overlooked. Now that it has been mentioned afresh, comment is apposite.

It is a misnomer to describe men on the Home Office Scheme, such as those at Dyce, as "Alternativists". In CO terms, an alternativist is one who offers to undertake some form of civilian service as an alternative to military service. This is in distinction from "Absolutists", who refused any form of war service, civilian or military. Men on the Scheme were largely absolutists, in principle refusing any co-operation with the war system, and being court-martialled and imprisoned by the Army as unwilling soldiers. The state sought a compromise by releasing some from prison to undertake civilian work under civilian control, but this did not change the men to "alternativists", and it is misleading to refer to them as such.

COs on the Scheme were certainly distributed randomly around Britain, but there is no evidence to suggest a deliberate policy of "To Scotland if English and vice versa"; it was random, whether English, Welsh or Scottish.

The photo could not have been taken at Dyce in 1917, as the Work Camp was opened in late August 1916 and closed in late October 1916, after the scandal arising from the death of Walter Roberts on 8 September 1916. The main activity was quarrying rocks for roadmaking, rather than roadmaking per se.

.

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Magnumbellum

Very interested in seeing the photograph mentioned in an ancient post above of 4 conscientious objectors at Dyce, one of whom is Charles Reuben Dyce. Does any one have a copy or know where I could see it. I am doing some research into art students during WW1 and he is one of them!

The first man listed in the photograph was Charles Reuben Bicknell (not Dyce), from Brighton.

The photo was apparently in the possession of GWF member BeppoSapone, who I note seems not to have been active for more than a year (last posted, August 2013). The link to the image of the photo does not work for me.

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Magnumbellum

Charles Reuben BICKNELL was recorded as 27 in 1916, suggesting that he was born c 1889 - a little old for an art "student", and, indeed, he was recorded as an art teacher. He lived at Woodside, 5 Lovers Walk, Brighton.

He was allowed only exemption from combatant military service by his Military Service Tribunal, presumably Brighton, meaning that he was allocated to the Non-Combatant Corps (4 Eastern Coy), into which he was forcibly enlisted on 29 May 1916. He refused a military order, and was court-martialled at Seaford on 12 June 1916, receiving 112 days imprisonment with hard labour, served at Maidstone Prison, but with a transfer to Wandsworth for appearance before the Central Tribunal on 9 August 1916. There he was found to be a "genuine" CO, after all, and was offered, and accepted,, work under the Home Office Scheme, although he was taken back to Maidstone whilst transfer to Army Reserve Class W was completed on 23 September 1916, when he was sent to Dyce Work Camp, Aberdeenshire.

This means that the photo showing him at Dyce must have been taken between that date and late October 1916, when Dyce was closed. It is not yet known where Bicknell went from Dyce, but presumably to another Work Centre, possibly Wakefield. At some time in early 1917 Bicknell must either have decided to resign from the Scheme, or been dismissed from the Scheme for a putative breach of conditions, because he reappeared back on Army strength in Dublin, where he was court-martialled for disobedience on 29 March 1917, receiving one year's imprisonment with hard labour. There followed a cycle of release, return to the Army, disobedience, re-imprisonment, with courts-martial at Dublin on 5 September 1917, one year hard labour, and on 19 July 1918, two years hard labour, sentences being served at Walton Prison, Liverpool.

On 18 October 1918 he was released from prison on health grounds, details not known, and never recalled to the Army.

Information to fill any gaps would be welcome.

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Clear Bell

Am new to this, and am not sure how to reply, send thanks and so on.

Thanks very much for information on Charles Bicknell - of course, not Dyce. Slow-brain.

I am on and off researching several Royal College of Art students who were arrested in 1916 under the Military Services Act. He appears to have been one of them.

Very interested in his turning up in Dublin as I have located another student, George F. Demaine who was sent there some time after serving time at Lewes Prison (at least a couple of 112 days worth of hard labour). I think, Demaine went to Arbour Barracks, and then on to Mountjoy Prison, Dublin, in 1918 for refusing to wear uniform. His sentence was for 2 years but in the event he didn't serve this and returned to study at the RCA in 1919.

Any one have a copy of the .jpeg with Charles or know where I might locate it?

Thanks again.

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Clear Bell

And I should add - the research is based on a register that also records the occupations of former students as well as those whose studies overlapped with the period of the war.

Having said this, RCA students had usually studied elsewhere before ending up there, and there were part-time students who seemed to have worked at the same time as attending classes.

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auchonvillerssomme

I have the Ackworth Quaker School Old Scholars Association Service List 1914-1918, which includes Conscientious Objectors if you need anything checking, the majority were FAU or served time in various prisons.

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Clear Bell

What is the scope of the list?

I haven't been able to locate records for a few RCA students that I think with COs. The trouble is their names are so commonplace - probably the wrong word. They are:

Evans, David

Thomson, Robert - he was arrested 16 May 1916.

Whaite, H. Clarence - he had been ill while at college, and I am wondering if a tribunal was held and simply meant he was exempted on these grounds.

I have found records for:

Demaine, George Frederick

Sexton, James

And I am aware the latter worked on farms after serving at least one 112 day period of hard labour in Lewes Prison.

If they don't appear in your list, have you any suggestions about where else records might be held?

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auchonvillerssomme

It is a list of 694 old scholars of Ackworth Quaker School who served or served a prison sentence in WW1. gives rank and unit.

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Clear Bell

Ah, ok. So need to find to if any went to this school. Might take a bit of time.

Thanks

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Magnumbellum

Thanks very much for information on Charles Bicknell.

I am on and off researching several Royal College of Art students who were arrested in 1916 under the Military Services Act. He appears to have been one of them.

Very interested in his turning up in Dublin as I have located another student, George F. Demaine who was sent there some time after serving time at Lewes Prison (at least a couple of 112 days worth of hard labour). I think, Demaine went to Arbour Barracks, and then on to Mountjoy Prison, Dublin, in 1918 for refusing to wear uniform. His sentence was for 2 years but in the event he didn't serve this and returned to study at the RCA in 1919.

George Frederick DEMAINE, born c 1892, lodging at 23 Paulton Square, Chelsea, but home address 209 Mallis Crescent, Keighley, West Riding, Yorks, was a Wesleyan Methodist and student of sculpture at the Royal College of Art. Chelsea Military Service Tribunal allowed him only exemption from combatant military service, meaning that he was deemed liable for call-up to the Non-Combatant Corps. He refused to comply with a notice to report for training, and on 16 May 1916 was arrested by the civil police, taken before the Magistrates' Court, fined, and handed over to a military escort. He was taken to the NCC Eastern companies depot in east London, where he disobeyed an order, and on 30 May 1916 was court-martialled at Shoreham, and sentenced to 2 years imprisonment with hard labour, commuted to 112 days imprisonment with hard labour, served in Lewes Prison, but with a transfer to Wormwood Scrubs for appearance before the Central Tribunal on 16 August 1916, where he was redefined as a "genuine" CO, and offered work under the Home Office Scheme. This he refused, so on release from prison, he was sent back to the Army, and court-martialled for disobedience a second time on 8 December 1916, at Coventry; sentenced again to 112 days imprisonment with hard labour, served in Mountjoy Prison, Dublin. On release on 16 March 1917 he was transferred to Arbour Hill Barracks, Dublin, where he again disobeyed, and had a third court-martial there on 23 April 1917, being sentenced to 1 year imprisonment with hard labour, again in Mountjoy, The cycle continued with release, then a fourth court-martial at Dublin on 7 March 1918, 2 years imprisonment with hard labour, in Walton Prison, Liverpool, from which he was transferred to Wakefield Prison in September 1918 for the short-lived experimental herding of all absolutists together, and then back to Walton, being finally released on 16 April 1919, under the provision for releasing all COs who had by that date served at least two years in prison, whether or not in a single sentence.

Thanks for the information that study at RCA was resumed.

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Magnumbellum

I haven't been able to locate records for a few RCA students that I think with COs. The trouble is their names are so commonplace - probably the wrong word. They are:

Evans, David

Thomson, Robert - he was arrested 16 May 1916.

Whaite, H. Clarence - he had been ill while at college, and I am wondering if a tribunal was held and simply meant he was exempted on these grounds.

I have found records for:

Demaine, George Frederick

Sexton, James

And I am aware the latter worked on farms after serving at least one 112 day period of hard labour in Lewes Prison.

David EVANS, born c 1894, lodging at 17 Redcliffe Road, Fulham, but believed to have a home address in Tivetshall St Mary, Norfolk, was a Quaker and RCA student. The Kensington Military Service Tribunal on 7 April 1916 allowed him only exemption from combatant military service, meaning that he would be deemed to be enlisted in the Non-Combatant Corps; the decision was confirmed on 16 May 1916 by the London County Appeal Tribunal, but, unusually and most exceptionally, an appeal directly to the War Office led to his being released for service with the Friends' Ambulance Unit, in which he performed "general service", mainly agricultural work in Britain, from June 1916 to February 1919.

Robert THOMSON, born c 1892, Quaker and RCA student (woodcarver/modeller). 61 Fell Lane, Keighley, West Riding, Yorks (London lodging not known) refused to apply to a Military Service Tribunal, on the premise that he knew his conscience, and it was not for anyone else to interfere (there were other COs who shared the premise). He accordingly ignored notice of call-up, was arrested by the civil police on 15 May 1916, taken before the magistrates' court on 16 May, fined, and handed over to the military, who placed him in the 3 London ® Regt, Hurdcott, Wilts, where he disobeyed an order, and on 25 May 1916 was court-martialled, receiving 56 days military detention. On release he again disobeyed, and was again court-martialled on 11 July 1916, at Devizes, receiving 21 months imprisonment with hard labour, commuted to 13 months, served in Shepton Mallet Prison, except for being taken to Wormwood Scrubs, London, for appearance before the Central Tribunal on 25 August 1916, where he was found to be a "genuine" CO, and offered the Home Office Scheme. This he refused, so was returned to prison, and, on release,returned to the Army, at Torquay. Continued disobedience led to his third court-martial, 12 February 1917, receiving two years imprisonment with hard labour, served in Cardiff and Exeter Prisons. The cycle continued, with a fourth court-martial, on 21 December 1917, at Blackdown, Hants, and one year imprisonment with hard labour, at Winchester Prison, with a diversion to Walton Prison, Liverpool, and Wakefield Prison for the experimental herding of Absolutists, and return to Walton; a fifth court-martial would have been due at Blackdown, but he was discharged from the Army on medical grounds in November 1918.

H Clarence WHAITE, c/o Dr Gloyne, Hatherly, Chalfont St Giles, Bucks, cannot be independently confirmed as a RCA student. He worked in the Friends' Ambulance Unit general service, meaning work in Britain either in hospitals or on the land, June 1916 to February 1919.

James Henry SEXTON, born c 1893, RCA student (designer), lodging at 23 Paulton Square, Chelsea, but home address, 9 Bellbank Avenue, Bingley, West Riding, Yorks, was exempted by the Chelsea Military Service Tribunal only from combatant military service, and was called up to the Non-Combatant Corps. After refusing the notice and being arrested and handed over by the magistrates, he was taken to 3 Eastern Company, NCC, at Shoreham, where refusing an order led to court-martial on 31 May 1916, and 2 years imprisonment with hard labour, commuted to 112 days, served at Lewes Prison, with a diversion to Wormwood Scrubs to attend the Central Tribunal on 16 August 1916; as he refused any compulsory work, even under civil control, he was sent back to complete his sentence and return to the army. Further disobedience led to a 2nd court-martial on 5 November 1917, and two years imprisonment with hard labour, served at Canterbury Prison. He was finally released on 23 June 1919. I am puzzled by the suggestion of his having done farm work, of which there seems no record, and it would be contrary to a pattern of absolute non-co-operation with the conscription system.

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Clear Bell

David EVANS, born c 1894, lodging at 17 Redcliffe Road, Fulham, but believed to have a home address in Tivetshall St Mary, Norfolk, was a Quaker and RCA student. The Kensington Military Service Tribunal on 7 April 1916 allowed him only exemption from combatant military service, meaning that he would be deemed to be enlisted in the Non-Combatant Corps; the decision was confirmed on 16 May 1916 by the London County Appeal Tribunal, but, unusually and most exceptionally, an appeal directly to the War Office led to his being released for service with the Friends'Ambulance Unit, in which he performed "general service", mainly agricultural work in Britain, from June 1916 to February 1919.

Robert THOMSON, born c 1892, Quaker and RCA student (woodcarver/modeller). 61 Fell Lane, Keighley, West Riding, Yorks (London lodging not known) refused to apply to a Military Service Tribunal, on the premise that he knew his conscience, and it was not for anyone else to interfere (there were other COs who shared the premise). He accordingly ignored notice of call-up, was arrested by the civil police on 15 May 1916, taken before the magistrates' court on 16 May, fined, and handed over to the military, who placed him in the 3 London ® Regt, Hurdcott, Wilts, where he disobeyed an order, and on 25 May 1916 was court-martialled, receiving 56 days military detention. On release he again disobeyed, and was again court-martialled on 11 July 1916, at Devizes, receiving 21 months imprisonment with hard labour, commuted to 13 months, served in Shepton Mallet Prison, except for being taken to Wormwood Scrubs, London, for appearance before the Central Tribunal on 25 August 19156, where he was found to be a "genuine" CO, and offered the Home Office Scheme. This he refused, so was returned to prison, and, on release,returned to the Army, at Torquay. Continued disobedience led to his third court-martial, 12 February 1917, receiving two years imprisonment with hard labour, served in Cardiff and Exeter Prisons. The cycle continued, with a fourth court-martial, on 21 December 1917, at Blackdown, Hants, and one year imprisonment with hard labour, at Winchester Prison, with a diversion to Walton Prison, Liverpool, and Wakefield Prison for the experimental herding of Absolutists, and return to Walton; a fifth court-martial would have been due at Blackdown, but he was discharged from the Army on medical grounds in November 1918.

H Clarence WHAITE, c/o Dr Gloyne,Hatherly, Chalfont St Giles, Bucks, cannot be independently confirmed as a RCA student. He worked in the Friends' Ambulance Unit general service, meaning work in Britain either in hospitals or on the land, June 1916 to February 1919.

James Henry SEXTON, born c 1893, RCA student (designer), lodging at 23 Paulton Square, Chelsea, but home address, 9 Bellbank Avenue, Bingley, West Riding, Yorks, was exempted by the Chelsea Military Service Tribunal only from combatant military service, and was called up to the Non-Combatant Corps. After refusing the notice and being arrested and handed over by the magistrates, he was taken to 3 Eastern Company, NCC, at Shoreham, where refusing an order led to court-martial on 31 May 1916, and 2 years imprisonment with hard labour, commuted to 112 days, served at Lewes Prison, with a diversion to Wormwood Scrubs to attend the Central Tribunal on 16 August 1916; as he refused any compulsory work, even under civil control, he was sent back to complete his sentence and return to the army. Further disobedience led to a 2nd court-martial on 5 November 1917, and two years imprisonment with hard labour, served at Canterbury Prison. He was finally released on 23 June 1919. I am puzzled by the suggestion of his having done farm work, of which there seems no record, and it would be contrary to a pattern of absolute non-co-operation with the conscription system.

Thanks for so much information. Very interesting and so detailed - I have only been able to look at records at Kew and documents at the RCA. Are you sources tribunal records? I can't really add anything to help you with your research except:

David EVANS returned to study at the RCA 24 September 1919.

Haven't found any records noting Robert THOMSON returning to study - but he could, of course, have decided to enrol elsewhere like the Slade or the Central School.

My information about James H. SEXTON comes from his RCA student file. I've read a letter he wrote to the Registrar dated 9 May 1917 from "The Rookery. Crosby Garrett, Kirkby Stephen, Westmoreland." And another from the same place on 20 May 1917 acknowledging a receipt of a package from the RCA in which he states" ..I am working on a farm now & have been here for 6 months next weekend, I am leaving here to go to a larger farm…" So there you have it. Could the November sentence have followed his period working in agriculture? He also returned to study at the RCA 24 September 1919.

H. (Henry) Clarence WHAITE was also a student at the RCA. He is in the register I have been using and his student file records his arrest. At some point, after the war, I think he wrote to the college explaining he had enrolled at the Slade - I think they had been expecting him to come back and may have been surprised when he told them he'd gone elsewhere.

Found another RCA CO today called George Noble. his file indicates he was with an NCC company.

Just wondering if the photo of four COs at Dyce (including Charles Reuben Bicknell) referred to in much earlier posts is the one I've found in Felicity Goodall's book noted as taken at Dyce Work Camp. Do you know it? The plates are not credited so not sure how to check this.

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Magnumbellum

Thanks for so much information. Very interesting and so detailed - I have only been able to look at records at Kew and documents at the RCA. Are you sources tribunal records? I can't really add anything to help you with your research except:

My information about James H. SEXTON comes from his RCA student file. I've read a letter he wrote to the Registrar dated 9 May 1917 from "The Rookery. Crosby Garrett, Kirkby Stephen, Westmoreland." And another from the same place on 20 May 1917 acknowledging a receipt of a package from the RCA in which he states" ..I am working on a farm now & have been here for 6 months next weekend, I am leaving here to go to a larger farm…" So there you have it. Could the November sentence have followed his period working in agriculture? He also returned to study at the RCA 24 September 1919.

Odd though the information about Sexton appears, your source for the farm work account is clearly credible, and it does fill in an otherwise unexplained gap of about a year in Sexton's record, between completion of his prison term at Lewes, which would have been in autumn 1916, and his second court-martial in November 1917. How he was able suddenly to divert to farm work is another matter. One possibility is that he went "on the run", There was no fixed pattern for COs like him completing sentences; sometimes the Army collected them from the prison gate, took them to the barracks, gave them an order, which they disobeyed, and the cycle was already in motion, On other occasions a man might be allowed to go home, in which case he might try to "disappear". Occasionally a CO might be able to stay away for some time, and even get a job, and theoretically this could have been Sexton's scenario, but, if so, he was being unusually brazen in writing to the RCA about being in work. On the other hand, it is difficult to know what else his official status was. At all events, the Army clearly caught up with him, leading to his November court-martial. Are there no further clues in the two May 1917 letters.

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Magnumbellum

Thanks for so much information. Very interesting and so detailed - I have only been able to look at records at Kew and documents at the RCA. Are you sources tribunal records?

Found another RCA CO today called George Noble. his file indicates he was with an NCC company.

Just wondering if the photo of four COs at Dyce (including Charles Reuben Bicknell) referred to in much earlier posts is the one I've found in Felicity Goodall's book noted as taken at Dyce Work Camp. Do you know it? The plates are not credited so not sure how to check this.

Regarding sources, most tribunal records of individual WW1 applicants were destroyed in 1921, except those for Middlesex, preserved at Kew under MH47, which also includes records of the Central Tribunal covering the whole country. Additionally at Kew are the WO records including many COs who passed through the hands of the military. There are also records at Friends' House Library, which are not exclusive to Quaker COs, as notes were made about many COs, regardless of faith, or, indeed, lack of faith. There are also records in the Catherine Marshall Archive, in Cumbria. Further work can be done by checking names, addresses, ages and occupations in the 1911 Census, and trawling local newspapers over relevant periods.

George NOBLE, born c 1885,10 Beaumont Road, Leicester (London lodging not known), art student, not clear whether he appeared before the Leicester Tribunal, or in London, but was apparently allowed only exemption from combatant military service, so was called up to the NCC, 6 Northern Company, Leicester, handed over 2 August 1916, disobeyed, and court-martialled at Leicester on 9 August 1916, resulting in 84 days imprisonment, commuted to 28 days, served in Welford Road Prison, Leicester, then Winson Green Prison, Birmingham, with a diversion to Wormwood Scrubs for appearance before the Central Tribunal on 18 August 1916. Found "genuine", he was offered, and accepted, the Home Office Scheme, and on 18 September 1916 was transferred to the Work Camp at Llanddeusant Waterworks, Llangadock, south Wales. He was probably transferred later to one or more other Work Camps/Work Centres, but details are not known. He was probably finally released in April 1919, when the Home Office Scheme was wound up.

Regarding the photo captioned "Four COs at Dyce Work Camp" in Felicity Goodall's A Question of Conscience, it may be taken as virtually certain that it is the same photo as the one mentioned by BeppoSapone earlier in this thread. I have seen another print of the same photo as Goodall's, with George Glasscock captioned as the man on the far right (others not named, as it illustrated a piece about Glasscock), which fits exactly with the left-right listing of BeppoSapone's photo, and the chances of there being another Dyce photo of precisely four COs, also including Glasscock on the right, but different men otherwise, in an era of few photos, and, at Dyce, very few occasions for taking them, are so slim as to be discountable.

Therefore I deem it safe to identify the man on the extreme left in Goodall's book as Charles Reuben Bicknell. As I mentioned earlier in the thread, the date of the photo must be between late September and late October 1916, not 1917, as claimed by BeppoSapone.

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Clear Bell

Regarding sources, most tribunal records of individual WW1 applicants were destroyed in 1921, except those for Middlesex, preserved at Kew under MH47, which also includes records of the Central Tribunal covering the whole country. Additionally at Kew are the WO records including many COs who passed through the hands of the military. There are also records at Friends' House Library, which are not exclusive to Quaker COs, as notes were made about many COs, regardless of faith, or, indeed, lack of faith. There are also records in the Catherine Marshall Archive, in Cumbria. Further work can be done by checking names, addresses, ages and occupations in the 1911 Census, and trawling local newspapers over relevant periods.

George NOBLE, born c 1885,10 Beaumont Road, Leicester (London lodging not known), art student, not clear whether he appeared before the Leicester Tribunal, or in London, but was apparently allowed only exemption from combatant military service, so was called up to the NCC, 6 Northern Company, Leicester, handed over 2 August 1916, disobeyed, and court-martialled at Leicester on 9 August 1916, resulting in 84 days imprisonment, commuted to 28 days, served in Welford Road Prison, Leicester, then Winson Green Prison, Birmingham, with a diversion to Wormwood Scrubs for appearance before the Central Tribunal on 18 August 1916. Found "genuine", he was offered, and accepted, the Home Office Scheme, and on 18 September 1916 was transferred to the Work Camp at Llanddeusant Waterworks, Llangadock, south Wales. He was probably transferred later to one or more other Work Camps/Work Centres, but details are not known. He was probably finally released in April 1919, when the Home Office Scheme was wound up.

Regarding the photo captioned "Four COs at Dyce Work Camp" in Felicity Goodall's A Question of Conscience, it may be taken as virtually certain that it is the same photo as the one mentioned by BeppoSapone earlier in this thread. I have seen another print of the same photo as Goodall's, with George Glasscock captioned as the man on the far right (others not named, as it illustrated a piece about Glasscock), which fits exactly with the left-right listing of BeppoSapone's photo, and the chances of there being another Dyce photo of precisely four COs, also including Glasscock on the right, but different men otherwise, in an era of few photos, and, at Dyce, very few occasions for taking them, are so slim as to be discountable.

Therefore I deem it safe to identify the man on the extreme left in Goodall's book as Charles Reuben Bicknell. As I mentioned earlier in the thread, the date of the photo must be between late September and late October 1916, not 1917, as claimed by BeppoSapone.

Re-read Sexton's correspondence with the college about working on a farm , he had asked 9 May 1917 for his work, mainly stained glass work, to be sent home to his father in Bingley, In the letter of 20 May he mentions that he is hoping to be there "in a fortnight'd time." So this all sounds fairly above board to me.

About four CO in one picture. I googled "Dyce Work Camp" today and under "images' tab immediately spotted another - different - photo of four COs! it was used in a Mirror article on objectors. Will compare likenesses and try and work things out from there!

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