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Eran Tearosh

Allenby's entry to Jerusalem - new story?

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michaeldr
On 6/20/2017 at 15:38, Eran Tearosh said:

Maybe there are some hints in Allenby's correspondence

 

Eran - Scans are on their way c/o Jumbo

...........................................................

 

 

It is interesting to note that the carefully planned and choreographed entrance into the City of Jerusalem was in fact an alternative.

Another scheme had been discussed by Allenby's staff, notably by Guy Dawnay, for the general to 'literally' fulfill the ancient Muslim prophecy

 

'the prophet from the west would enter Jerusalem by the Golden Gate and bring an end to Turkish rule when Nile water was brought into Palestine'

 

Nile water was indeed brought into Palestine via the British army's trans-Sinai pipeline

Also Allenby written in Arabic came out as 'Al Nebi' which being translated means 'the prophet'.

 

Ignoring the fact that the Golden Gate is walled up, Allenby described to his wife that the idea was impractical as

“Unfortunately you had to go through a Moslem grave yard and the area of the Mosque of Omar, so it was dropped.”

 

[details from  http://people.uncw.edu/ricej/SOC490/The Last Crusade British Propaganda 1917 1918 By Eitan Bar Yosef.pdf ]

 

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voltaire60

Correct- British Heart Foundation and Amnesty are my preferences.

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Ghazala

General  Sir Edmund Allenby rides to the Jaffa Gate on December 11, 1917.  He dismounted and entered on foot.

IMG_4897.JPG

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Ghazala

 

In his book ‘Jerusalem Curiosities’ Abraham Ezra Millgram quotes at length from Vivian Gilbert’s ‘The Romance of the Last Crusade: With Allenby to Jerusalem’ which describes the multiple attempts that the rulers of the vanquished city had to make before they could find someone among the conquerors who was authorised and willing to accept Jerusalem’s surrender. 

 

The first to be offered Jerusalem was ‘Private Murch’ a British cook bivouacked in the north of the city who had been sent on December 9th by his commanding officer to the nearby village of Lifta to find some eggs for breakfast.  When Murch was approached by the mayor of Jerusalem, on horseback and flying a white flag, offering to turn over the keys to the city, Murch replied “I don’t want yer city.  I want some eggs for my Hofficers".

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Ghazala

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Ghazala
On 17/06/2017 at 23:14, Eran Tearosh said:

 

 

Hi everone,

 

First Thank you all for trying to assist in solving the really complicated events around the Capture of Jerusalem.

 

Ill answer/respond one by one (might take a while...):

 

First Philip Wilson (Post #2): Yes, I agree. Im not familiar with any record in British books connecting Allenby and Shaare Zedek (Wallach) Hospital. Im looking for details of that day (Dec. 11, 1917) when, from where and how Allenby arrives to Jerusalem. Where does he mount his horse (Some claim that Allenbys soldiers nicknamed that horse Hinderburg’…)? Details of his route towards Jaffa Gate (Most likely down Jaffa Road. There are several mentions of this ride. Shaare Zedek Hospital is on the side of this road) and what happens after the ceremonies at Jaffa Gate, the stairs of The Citadel and the dignitaries reception in the courtyard of the Kishleh (The barracks). When and how does he leave the city?

 

Theres one source that claims that there was a meal that took place in 60th division HQ. The source is no less than Lawrences Seven Pillars of Wisdom. It describes a fascinating incident during that meal, concerning Picot:

 

5945a90d74761_quotefromsevenpillarsofwisdom.jpg.8308bea905672d1c0088cfb2faf6434d.jpg

 

So far, havent found any other reference to this meal and/or incident.

 

As I wrote before It would be great to know what Allenby wrote in his own diaries and in the letters he wrote to his wife regarding the Capture of Jerusalem.

 

Eran

 

Thanks for that Eran.  Most interesting.

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michaeldr

OUR Jerusalem - an American Family in the Holy City, 1881-1949 by Bertha Spafford Vester 


seen here https://archive.org/stream/ourjersalem000091mbp/ourjersalem000091mbp_djvu.txt

 

quote
p.257:- …........
"I was thinking about my men, and that I had no more food to give them, so I went out into the middle of the road and put out my arms. The car had to stop or run over me, so it stopped. 
I got on to the running board and told the officer, whom I found was Major General Sir John Shea, divisional commander, who I was and why I had been so bold. He gave orders to his aide-de-camp to take note of what I said. 
As I stood on the running board of the general s car, a crowd of people advanced toward us in the road led by Hassain Effendi al Husseini, and I introduced Hassain to General Sir John Shea. I stood beside the car while General Shea received the letter of surrender, written by Izzat Pasha a few hours before. 
p.258:- 
In a commanding voice the general said, after reading the letter, "It is a lie, it is a "lie." My knees shook, and I wondered what had roused the general. I soon found out. In the letter which the Pasha had written he said that the reason the Turkish Army had retreated was to save the holy places from destruction by British guns, and the general knew that not one English gun had been fired on Jerusalem.
The general soon followed me to the hospital, and I took him on the roof to get a view of old Jerusalem as well as the surrounding country. From there I noticed what seemed to be skirmishing on the hills north of Jerusalem very near the American Colony. I could hardly answer General Shea's questions coherently about the different sites to be seen from the roof. I was so eager to send a messenger to Mother to find out if they were safe. 
…...................................................................

p.260>
On December 11 the commander in chief, General Allenby, made his formal entry into Jerusalem. The great general rode on horse back as far as the Jaffa Gate. The gate had been closed for some time. Before the visit to Jerusalem of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in 1898, the Turks, fearing the narrow gate would obstruct traffic, had made a breach in the old rampart wall so that carriages could enter the city. The Kaiser had entered on a white charger wearing the gorgeous white Uhlan uniform with the dazzling and burnished helmet surmounted by the German eagle, but even that was not spectacular enough for him. Whatever uniform His Majesty put on was the signal for the rest of his military entourage to copy; but as some of his suite were more imposing in stature than he was, he had made himself unique by wearing a white-and-gold kaffiyeh gathered under the spreading eagle, and over his white uniform was a white silk abayah with gold threads running through that sparkled in the sunlight. The Emperor was not only an artist in his choice of costume to impress his oriental audience, but also an actor. 

 

How different was this solemn and dignified entrance of General Allenby, who, to do honor to his Master, walked into the Holy City as a pilgrim. 
 

First in the procession came Colonel Barton, postmaster general of Cairo, who had hurriedly come to Jerusalem to be the first military governor. 
 

The commander in chief, preceded by his aide-de-camp, had on his right the commander of the French detachment and on his left the commander of the Italian detachment. Following were the Italian, French, and American military attaches and a few members of the General Staff. The American military attache was Colonel Edward Davis. Guards of honor marched in the rear. 
The procession entered the Jaffa Gate, walked past the Grand New Hotel, which was our hospital, turned to the right toward Zion, and on the steps of the citadel in the shadow of the Tower of David, part of which dates from David s time, and another part which was standing at the time of Christ, the proclamation was read. 

 

This proclamation, which was read in English, French, Arabic, Hebrew, Greek, Russian, and Italian, announced that order would be maintained in all the sacred sites of the three great religions which would be carefully guarded for the full use of the worshipers it assured the people that they might pursue their lawful business without interruption. 
 

Throughout the ceremony no Allied flag was flown. After the short ceremony the chief notables and ecclesiastics of the different communities who were in Jerusalem were presented to General Allenby. In a photograph of this ceremony the Chief Rabbi stands beside the Grand Mufti. After the reception the commander in chief left Jerusalem by the Jaffa Gate. Outside the gate he mounted his horse and rode away. Our American Colony photographer took pictures of all. The photographs showing General Allenby leaving Jerusalem on a horse, with the city wall as a background, had difficulty in passing the censor, but it was finally released because the rampart wall at his back proved he was leaving the city, not entering. 

...............................................................

During the ceremony I was on the balcony of the Grand New Hotel. John Whiting touched me on my shoulder and asked whether I would mind giving my place to James McBey. Of course I minded, but I could not refuse the official artist a good place to make the sketches for his famous painting of the historical entry of General Allenby. I looked over his shoulder, and I knew I was fortunate indeed to be witnessing one of the great events in history..............................."

 

 

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michaeldr
1 hour ago, michaeldr said:

Our American Colony photographer took pictures of all. The photographs showing General Allenby leaving Jerusalem on a horse, with the city wall as a background, had difficulty in passing the censor, but it was finally released because the rampart wall at his back proved he was leaving the city, not entering. 

 

That photograph

 

00169v.jpg

 

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Ghazala
1 hour ago, michaeldr said:

OUR Jerusalem - an American Family in the Holy City, 1881-1949 by Bertha Spafford Vester 


seen here https://archive.org/stream/ourjersalem000091mbp/ourjersalem000091mbp_djvu.txt

 

 

Throughout the ceremony no Allied flag was flown. 

 

 

It is said that a Jewish Allied soldier from New Zealand, Corporal Louis Isaac Salek, hung a blue and white flag, decorated with the Star of David from the Tower of David.  He had ordered the flag from the Jewish haberdasher Moreno Cicurel, of Cairo, who had it made by a tailor, Eliezer Slutzkin.  Within 20 minutes, the British had removed the flag.

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michaeldr


I'm not sure what exactly Bertha Spafford Vesta meant by her remark regarding the flags

Does she mean that none were 'officially' flown or 'officially' carried by the troops?

Unofficial flags were certainly to be seen that morning, [including that of the new American ally] but hanging from nearby buildings, and not as far as I can tell from the Citadel, the Old City walls or the Jaffa Gate

02225v.jpg


 

Edited by michaeldr

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michaeldr

TEL mentions that after the ceremony at the Citadel “We drove back to Shea's headquarters”
Where was Shea's HQ at that time? 
Was it still at Enab or had he already moved it into to the city?
Was it perhaps at the Russian Compound?
There are several photographs in the Matson collection of a parade to celebrate the allied victory which took place at the Russian Compound on 11th December 1917 
see

http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11529v.jpg
http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11528v.jpg
http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11526v.jpg
http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11525v.jpg
http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11523v.jpg

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michaeldr
3 hours ago, michaeldr said:

During the ceremony I was on the balcony of the Grand New Hotel. John Whiting touched me on my shoulder and asked whether I would mind giving my place to James McBey. Of course I minded, but I could not refuse the official artist a good place to make the sketches for his famous painting of the historical entry of General Allenby. 

 

McBey's painting seen at the IWM

http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/18134

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Eran Tearosh
23 hours ago, michaeldr said:

 

Eran - Scans are on their way c/o Jumbo

...........................................................

 

 

It is interesting to note that the carefully planned and choreographed entrance into the City of Jerusalem was in fact an alternative.

Another scheme had been discussed by Allenby's staff, notably by Guy Dawnay, for the general to 'literally' fulfill the ancient Muslim prophecy

 

'the prophet from the west would enter Jerusalem by the Golden Gate and bring an end to Turkish rule when Nile water was brought into Palestine'

 

Nile water was indeed brought into Palestine via the British army's trans-Sinai pipeline

Also Allenby written in Arabic came out as 'Al Nebi' which being translated means 'the prophet'.

 

Ignoring the fact that the Golden Gate is walled up, Allenby described to his wife that the idea was impractical as

“Unfortunately you had to go through a Moslem grave yard and the area of the Mosque of Omar, so it was dropped.”

 

[details from  http://people.uncw.edu/ricej/SOC490/The Last Crusade British Propaganda 1917 1918 By Eitan Bar Yosef.pdf ]

 

 

Michael,

 

Thanks for the scans. Going through them now.

 

As to the "prophecy" - I never encountered that story anywhere else, except within British books (And quotes of those British sources). I guess it was another propaganda scheme - Will be quite interesting to find a document proving that was the case. The chances of the Nile water flowing into the Holy Land (Why not the Euphrates or Tigris?); A prophet from the west (Very non-Islamic idea...); and the prophet is called el-Nebi?.... 

 

Most sources quoting that story don't refer to the Golden Gate. Indeed, Guy Dawney was the voice putting that forward, combining the so called "local Islamic prophecy" with the purely Christian idea of the Messiah reentering the city from Golden Gate (In a way - this proves that all that "local Islamic prophecy" was fictitious). Practically, that most likely would have triggered at least some parts of the Islamic world into action (and/or the Muslim elements within the EEF) – the last thing London or Allenby wanted.

 

Eran

 

 

 

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michaeldr
On 6/11/2017 at 18:36, michaeldr said:

regarding the competing locations for the signing of the surrender of the city

Is it possible that both the claims (cathedral & hospital) are justified?

 

Did Izzet Bey sign the document at the cathedral, before leaving the city

 

This seems to be to very likely indeed 

 

quote from the Bertha Spafford Vesta's book previously referred to

"One morning Djemal Pasha s naval aide-de-camp called at our house to ask if I would be willing to oversee the renovation of the 
Anglican Bishop's Palace for the residence of the new civil governor, Izzat Pasha. Izzat Pasha's wife was a near relative of His Excellency, 
and as the bishop's house had been roughly used since it was commandeered it needed considerable repairs. I was delighted to do this." 

 

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michaeldr
On 6/23/2017 at 13:08, michaeldr said:

TEL mentions that after the ceremony at the Citadel “We drove back to Shea's headquarters”
Where was Shea's HQ at that time? 
Was it still at Enab or had he already moved it into to the city?
Was it perhaps at the Russian Compound?
There are several photographs in the Matson collection of a parade to celebrate the allied victory which took place at the Russian Compound on 11th December 1917 
see

http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11529v.jpg
http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11528v.jpg
http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11526v.jpg
http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11525v.jpg
http://cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/matpc/11500/11523v.jpg

 

The British were indeed occupying the Russian Compound from quite early

On the morning of the surrender Bertha Spafford Vesta mentions going there 

John Whiting and I were summoned to the hospital in the Russian 
Compound by Colonel T. B. Layton, in charge of the 2d Fourth (sic) Field 
Ambulance. Colonel Layton wanted information about the different 
hospitals in the city to enable him to make his men comfortable who 
had been wounded in the actual taking of the last Turkish stronghold. 

NB: This meeting with Col Layton at the Russian Compound took place before Ms Vesta's meeting with Gen Shea mentioned in post No.32 above
Edited by michaeldr

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Eran Tearosh
23 hours ago, michaeldr said:

 

The British were indeed occupying the Russian Compound from quite early

On the morning of the surrender Bertha Spafford Vesta mentions going there 


John Whiting and I were summoned to the hospital in the Russian 
Compound by Colonel T. B. Layton, in charge of the 2d Fourth (sic) Field 
Ambulance. Colonel Layton wanted information about the different 
hospitals in the city to enable him to make his men comfortable who 
had been wounded in the actual taking of the last Turkish stronghold. 

NB: This meeting with Col Layton at the Russian Compound took place before Ms Vesta's meeting with Gen Shea mentioned in post No.32 above

 

 

Michael,

 

Im a bit careful regarding using Bertha Spafford (And Vivian Gilbert, for that matter) as reliable source. She is a wonderful source as far as giving the atmosphere and lots of anecdotes, but, in my feelings, she had that need to show that she (Or at least, members of the American Colony) was/were involved in every possible event in Jerusalem of that time. Ill give a few more examples later, but one refers to what you asked about the timing of the meeting between Col. Layton and Whiting/Spafford. Theres a very small chance of that happening before the arrival of Gen. Shea, as there was still so much uncertainty at those first hours as to where are the Ottomans (Some were still scattered within the city, while most were just on the edge of the city, north, north-east and east and the fighting there continued during the afternoon hours of Dec. 9th). Some sources claim that Whiting spoke to Brigadier-Gen. Watson at Jaffa Gate. How on earth could Col. Layton find her (And summon her at that time) and how could she be running all these hospitals (Thats what she claims in her book) and at the same time be all over the place, to meet the Arab Mayor in the early hours, Col. Layton, and jump on Gen. Sheas car?  It makes sense that the meeting with Col. Layton did take place, probably later that day or sometime the following day - but thats exactly why Bertha's book has to be read very carefully. 

 

You asked: Where was Shea's HQ at that time? It moved during December 9th, from Enab to the The English Mission Hospital, as mentioned in post #22. So, when TEL writes “We drove back to Shea's headquarters”, it’s to that HQ.

 

As far as the photos of the ceremony at the Russian Compound common mistake. The captions are wrong these are photos from the 1918 ceremony, not 1917.

 

Eran

Edited by Eran Tearosh

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michaeldr
32 minutes ago, Eran Tearosh said:

As far as the photos of the ceremony at the Russian Compound common mistake. The captions are wrong – these are photos from the 1918 ceremony, not 1917.

 

 

Yes that must be right I guess

It looks too well organised, with all the chairs etc 

Thanks for the clarification

 

regards

Michael

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michaeldr

Prof David R. Woodward in his 'Forgotten Soldiers of the First Word War' [Tempus, 2006, ISBN 0 7524 3854 9]

mentions the diary & letter of 10th December 1917, IWM Bayley MSS 86/9/1

and diary IWM Chipperfield MSS 75/76/1

does anyone have copies of these please, which they are prepared to share?

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Stuart24
On 01/07/2017 at 14:31, michaeldr said:

Prof David R. Woodward in his 'Forgotten Soldiers of the First Word War' [Tempus, 2006, ISBN 0 7524 3854 9]

mentions the diary & letter of 10th December 1917, IWM Bayley MSS 86/9/1

and diary IWM Chipperfield MSS 75/76/1

does anyone have copies of these please, which they are prepared to share?

I'm going to IWM to do some research on Wednesday - I'll tack these onto my list.

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michaeldr

Stuart,

 

That's very good of you: many thanks

Michael

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Bernard_Lewis

Some great digging underway here! 

 

Bernard

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Eran Tearosh
On 3.7.2017 at 16:32, Stuart24 said:

I'm going to IWM to do some research on Wednesday - I'll tack these onto my list.

 

Hi Stuart

 

In the book published by The Second Twentieth Battalion I find the following:

"The details of this historic assault and its sequel cannot be better described than in the words og Gen. Watson's official acount:..."

 

Any chance of adding this to the list?

 

Eran

 

 

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Stuart24
On 05/07/2017 at 03:53, Eran Tearosh said:

 

Hi Stuart

 

In the book published by The Second Twentieth Battalion I find the following:

"The details of this historic assault and its sequel cannot be better described than in the words og Gen. Watson's official acount:..."

 

Any chance of adding this to the list?

 

Eran

 

 

Sorry Eran, didn't get your message until this morning!  However, I'm hoping to get back there again by the end of the month.

 

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Stuart24
On 01/07/2017 at 14:31, michaeldr said:

Prof David R. Woodward in his 'Forgotten Soldiers of the First Word War' [Tempus, 2006, ISBN 0 7524 3854 9]

mentions the diary & letter of 10th December 1917, IWM Bayley MSS 86/9/1

and diary IWM Chipperfield MSS 75/76/1

does anyone have copies of these please, which they are prepared to share?

 

Hi Michael,

 

I checked both of those sources.  Chipperfield makes no mention of any specific buildings or sites, and Bayley (both in a letter dated 10 December and in his journal) talks about going to the nearby 'Jewish Hospital' - no road name or other details.  I've made copies of the relevant pages and can either paste them onto here (I need to play around with file size versus readability) or if you private message me your email address I can email them directly to you.

 

Cheers

Stuart

 

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michaeldr

Stuart


 

The Jewish Hospital sounds like the one run by Dr Wallach, as mentioned by Eran in his op, and the Conde de Ballobar in his diary

After posting this I will send you a PM with my e-address

Thanks for all your help here

 

best regards

Michael

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