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Belgian Franctireurs 1914


fritz
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I'm not sure how I can make it any clearer that I don't agree with the killing or execution of civilians,

I am sure you dont... but that is not what interests me... I still cannot see if you think the Germans did or not, you flip-flap between saying

1) Everyone was doing it

2) It is just allied propaganda saying the germans did it

3) Well, it was justified because the Belgians were shooting at the germans.

Can you choose one of the above so i know where to continue from?

"but I think part of the problem here is the persistence of propaganda-based beliefs from the era that what the Germans did was completely unique. "

Ken, P or get off the pot. Tell me... who else did it? You have basically said (3 or 4 time) "Well, everyone was doing it..."

Please tell me... Who and where?? Which other Western Armies on the western front were mass shooting civilains?

I really cannot get my mind around the logic of "It should not be expected of the Germans that they document such things in their histories, when the allies did not either"... for a number of reasons... primary one being, the allies did not seem to do it, ergo no mention in their histories.

When I initially posted I had 3 Histories where such things were not mentioned, you challenged me as if that could not be, as if you did not believe what I was claiming... then when shown that it is so, you say "Well, thats Normal, why should they..."

Indeed, why should they... it was nothing to be proud of...

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Well... which other countries had mass executions to include in thier WW1 histories? I must be missing something here.... French Killeing Belgian cicilians? British killing French civilians?

Earlier in this thread I have presented material from a respected British eyewitness source of the French, as late as 1918, shooting Flemish civilians for reasons so bizarre that they seemed to be a form of amusement. If a single British medical officer knew a number of cases and personally knew at least two of the victims, there must have been a good deal of this going on. But no seems to be interested into looking into this; certainly not writing a book about it.

This thread seems to be taking a nasty turn, and one away from reasoned discussion of military events. I have been trying to stay out of this. I am very sensitive and concerned with this topic and the broader topic of the abuse of civilians, not only because my grandfather had a role in the invasion of Belgium, but also because my family is almost extinct, largely because of the murder of mostly civilian (and some military POW) family members, not only after the end of WW II, but also after the end of WW I, by the organized and irregular forces of the victorious powers, mostly in the east, but also by western Allied powers.

If we want to move away from a reasoned discussion of specific military events, including matters as sensitive as the franc titeur question, to discussions of general guilt and frighfulness, I will be happy to contribute my part.

Bob

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Ken

Another regiment that apparently was present in Leuven/Louvain is

Infanterie-Regiment„Lübeck“ (3. Hanseatisches) Nr. 162

Buken (currently part of Kampenhout) is a small village on the main road between Leuven and Mechelen. On the 25th of august there was a Belgian counterattack in the direction of canal. (sluice at Kampenhout). I have the impression that the (at that moment still untried units of IX res corps) were sent quickly in that direction. By the next day 50 of the 84 houses in the tiny village of Buken were destroyed.

Chris

re backpacks I was only refering to regulations. I would certainly not want to be responsible for the contents of backpacks of currently serving personel! :innocent:

Bob

Stay around

Carl

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Ken

Bob

Stay around

Carl

Thank you, Carl!

I would like to point to the example of Carl, whio has very different views than I do on some of these matters, but we are able to always have a civil and friendy tone, and are also able to collaborate on our research off the Forum; he has given me great assistance with my research (but also has forced me to ramp up my Flemish!) I view him as a true e-friend.

Bob

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To state that the battalion was not in the city "during the night" of the 25th and "not in Louvain on the 25th " are two totally different things. You claimed that they bivouaced in Louvain during the night of the 25th. Evidently they did not. That they arrived in Louvain sometime in the evening of the 25th is stated in the "regimental history". But what route they took through Louvain is not, but not really relevant given the times involved.

Well, if they marched through it on the 25... and "its been established" that they were not in Louvain on the 25th... then I see a logical problem here.... can you guess what it is?

I cannot claim to be working from Recall, so I will have to admit I used google maps, but Bueken is to the North West... and the trains from liege come into the station from the South East... so they would have marched through the city from the South East and out in the North West... which more or less implies they went right through the middle?

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Indeed they were. The regiment arrived by foot not long before the shooting started. The erinnerungsblatt states that it was fired upon from surrounding buildings and that in some cases when buildings were entered the men were attacked by women and youths. Those buildings that were believed to be the source of sniping were torched.

Ken

Another regiment that apparently was present in Leuven/Louvain is

Infanterie-Regiment„Lübeck“ (3. Hanseatisches) Nr. 162

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Most important among the German units in Leuven is landsturmbattalion Neuss. The unit commander was a major von Manteuffel who also served as town commander. His declaration that he had no evidence for civilians firing on German soldiers is imo very interesting.

Carl

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Most important among the German units in Leuven is landsturmbattalion Neuss. The unit commander was a major von Manteuffel who also served as town commander. His declaration that he had no evidence for civilians firing on German soldiers is imo very interesting.

Carl

I am not contributing as I have no information or have read of these matters; the units I study had passed thru this area before.

These were two Majors von Manteuffel in the Prussian Army on May 6, 1914. In Landwehrbezirk Donaueschingen, as Bezirkoffizier. His date of rank was "Char. 10. 9. 08" and associated with something called "Triberg M. A.".

The other was at Landwehrbezirk Altenburg, also a Bezirkoffizier; his d.o.r. was Char.22. 5. 12, with the notation H. M. A. (I think that these "M. A." are sub-divisions of the overall Bezirk).

Googling on Donaueschingen, Altenburg, and Neuss (the Landsturm=Bataillon is probably named for the geographic area where it was raised, not a present or past commander) would probably identify which of these von Manteuffel was the officer involved. I have to close now for the moment but I could look into this further if someone wants me to.

I am surprised that there was Landsturm in Belgium at this time, they were between 35 and 45 years old, long out of training, short on equipment, and not intended for combat; Perhaps they were there as a garrison. I can't recall Landsturm ever used as combat troops on the Western Front; they were in the East.

Bob

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The other was at Landwehrbezirk Altenburg, also a Bezirkoffizier; his d.o.r. was Char.22. 5. 12, with the notation H. M. A. (I think that these "M. A." are sub-divisions of the overall Bezirk).

Bob

Not absolutely certain, but this is probably "our man". The Donaueschingen where the other Major von Manteuffel was in June 1914 is far to the south in Bavaria. Neuss from where the Landsturm battalion probably came from is on the west bank of the Rhine actoss from Dusseldorf, near the crossing-points into Belgium. Altenburg where he was almost certainly stationed in August 1914 was closer to Belgium in the same area; he could have easily joined Bataillon Neuss on its way to Belgium. At mobilization there was a great shuffling of officers, in particular for reserve units.

On May 1, 1911 von Manteuffel was an officer of Grenadier=Regiment Koenig Friedrich Wilhelm II Nr. 10, the CO of Kompagnie Nr. 10. He must have retired from active service between 1911 and 1914. As a recent active duty officer of an elite regiment, he probably was considered an energetic infantry officer with recent active duty experience as an infantry unit commander; the CO of the battalion (if it had one) at the breakout of the war might have been 20-30 years older and perhaps that long away from active duty service. At mobilization, I have noticed that often the lamer the reserve unit, the more energetic the commander assigned to it. So the situation was a battalion of older men with little training for 10 or more years, generally considered not fit for combat, paired with what probably was a very energetic, able infantry officer as CO.

I have checked; the sources used for the above research were Prussian Ranglisten, I have looked in my 1911 Deutsche Rangliste as well, which also covers the Bavarian and Saxon Armies, and the Navy, and there were no other likely candidates for our "Maj. von Manteuffel" in the German Armies. The other candidate that I identified above was a major with the Landwehr in Heidelberg in December 1, 1910. He evidentally moved from the Rhineland to Bavaria between 1911 and 1914.

Bob

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I believe that the commander of the Landsturm battalion in question was a Lt. Col Schweder. According to the "White Book" the commandant of Louvain was Major v. Manteuffel, "15th Mobile Forage Commando". The reports that I've read have both of them claiming that civilians had fired on German soldiers and that civilians had been caught with weapons (and then shot). I do, however, recall reading something in which they made the claim that there was no evidence of civilians firing on German troops, but I can't recall who it was.

Most important among the German units in Leuven is landsturmbattalion Neuss. The unit commander was a major von Manteuffel who also served as town commander. His declaration that he had no evidence for civilians firing on German soldiers is imo very interesting.

Carl

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I believe that the commander of the Landsturm battalion in question was a Lt. Col Schweder.

In the Prussian and Wuerttemburg Armies the only possible candidate was, in 1911, Oberstleutnant z. D. Schweder, Char. 10. 9. 10, who in May 1, 1911 was the commander of the Landwehrbezirk Weissenfels, in Saxony-Anhalt (a province of Prussia, not in the Kingdom of Saxony), south of Halle, south-west of Leipzig. I looked in the Deutsche Rangliste for 1911, and there was not another candidate in the Saxon or Bavarian Armies. On May 6, 1909 he was in the same post, but was a major, 11. 9. 03 N2n. On May 9, 1900 there were two Captains Schweder's, both on active service with infantry regiments, in IR 16 in Westphalia the CO of the 9th Company (at this time the Ranglisten did not include the date of rank), the other was CO the 6th Company of IR Nr. 170 in Baden. He was second highest is seniority among the captains of the regiment, the other Schweder was the highest in seniority, so that date of rank cannot easily be used to decide which of these two officers is the Lieutenant-Ciolonel Schweder at Louvain. (one disappeared from the rolls between 1900 and 1909; from the reserves as well as the rolls of the active duty officers.) If anyone is interested in this I can poke about my 50-odd Ranglisten to research him further.

These records and most other German Army records maddenly do not include first names, 99% of the time, and sometimes will refer to soldiers in a given unit as Schmidt I, Schmidt II, and Schmidt III, rather than use first names. (If two brothers or other officers with the same last name served in the same regiment the Rangliste would relent and mention Schmidt (Otto) and Schmidt (Hans) in the regiment's listing.) The postmen in my ancestral Prussian village, army veterans, insisted in refering to an ancestor of mine as "Fuchs III", rather than use his given name, this being in civilian life. (Bit of an aside, but I thought it might be interesting.) This is why I can't easily distinguish between these two Hauptleute, I don't have their first names.

Bob

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Here is a Major z. D. Karl Schweder that was awarded the Orden vom Zaehringer Loewen in 1905. The commander of Landwehrbezirk Weissenfels also has this medal. I would think that this perhaps makes him the Schweder from IR170.

http://wiki-de.genealogy.net/Hof-_und_Staatshandbuch_des_Gro%C3%9Fherzogtums_Baden_(1910)/224

The Karl Schweder who commanded 2. mobile Landsturm Bataillon Neuss was incidentally born on April 24, 1856 in Posen.

http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/germany-auswrtiges-amt/the-german-army-in-belgium-the-white-book-of-may-1915-hci/page-20-the-german-army-in-belgium-the-white-book-of-may-1915-hci.shtml

I would think that trying to find out as much as possible about this man would be beneficial to further discussion about and research on this topic.

In the Prussian and Wuerttemburg Armies the only possible candidate was, in 1911, Oberstleutnant z. D. Schweder, Char. 10. 9. 10, who in May 1, 1911 was the commander of the Landwehrbezirk Weissenfels, in Saxony-Anhalt (a province of Prussia, not in the Kingdom of Saxony), south of Halle, south-west of Leipzig. I looked in the Deutsche Rangliste for 1911, and there was not another candidate in the Saxon or Bavarian Armies. On May 6, 1909 he was in the same post, but was a major, 11. 9. 03 N2n. On May 9, 1900 there were two Captains Schweder's, both on active service with infantry regiments, in IR 16 in Westphalia the CO of the 9th Company (at this time the Ranglisten did not include the date of rank), the other was CO the 6th Company of IR Nr. 170 in Baden. He was second highest is seniority among the captains of the regiment, the other Schweder was the highest in seniority, so that date of rank cannot easily be used to decide which of these two officers is the Lieutenant-Ciolonel Schweder at Louvain. (one disappeared from the rolls between 1900 and 1909; from the reserves as well as the rolls of the active duty officers.) If anyone is interested in this I can poke about my 50-odd Ranglisten to research him further.

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The casualty list for September 29, 1914 (Ausgabe 59, S. 627 [scan 7]) has the casualty list for Landsturm Batallion Nr. II, Neuss for the period Aug. 25 to Sept. 13, 1914:

Landsturm-Bataillon Nr. II, Neuss

Gefechte im Westen vom 25. 8. bis 13. 9. 14

1. Kompagnie

Landsturmmann Josef Fenes – Neuss – leicht verwundet.

Landsturmmann Albert Kloenters – Neuss – leicht verwundet.

Landsturmmann Josef Roeseler – Neuss – leicht verwundet.

Landsturmmann Peter Kleu – Glesch – leicht verwundet.

Landsturmmann Heinrich Clemens – Neuss – schwer verwundet.

Landsturmmann Franz Bongatz – Gindorf – schwer verwundet.

Landsturmmann Peter Mueller – Frimmersdorf – schwer verwundet.

3. Kompagnie

Unteroffizier Karl Huber Philipp – Aachen – leicht verwundet.

4. Kompagnie

Gefreiter Laurentius Vontz – Hambach bei Juelich – vermisst.

Landsturmmann Ludwig Schmitz – Hambach – vermisst.

Landsturmmann Laurentius Pelzer – Hambach – vermisst.

Landsturmmann Karl Hausmann – Weisweiler bei Dueren – vermisst.

Landsturmmann Engelbert Baum – Merzenich bei Dueren – schwer verwundet.

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Ken;

The Ranglisten have the officer's orders, so I will be able to see if Karl "is our man". Over the period I looked at, 1900 to 1914, his inventory of orders grew from two to four, I think. But I did not look them up.

The losses statistics are interesting. I had not ever looked at the Verlustslisten, but a few days ago I thought of looking up contested events in this area, to see if the Germans were taking casualties, and how many. The four "missing" is interesting. This early in the war, and on enemy terrain, and with a hostile population, men did not tend to desert or wander off. Just reading the diary of an infantry company commander in Belgium at that time, and once "incidents" started to occur, he remarked how not a single man of his entire regiment fell out on stiff marches, due to fear of the inhabitants. But he also remarked on what I would consider inflammatory statements in the German press, supplied to the troops, at the very outbreak of the war, and descriptions of alleged atrocities by Belgians against German stragglers and isolated troops, which, true or not, certainly put the German troops seriously on edge against the possibility of franc titeur activity.

The more you read about this situation, the stronger the impression of a "Perfect Storm", of a multiplicity of causes, actions, and attitudes on both sides building up to a very bad situation and outcome.

Bob

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Yes, in 1910 the Schweder I am tracking had the Grand-Duke of Baden Order of Zaehringer Loewen Class 3a. Note that one of the two Schweder's that I identified was a company commander in IR 170 garrisoned in Baden, so he is probably "our man". I can't do it further at this moment, but I will track his career. I have Prussian Ranglisten from 1902, 1905, 1906, 1907, and some other references from that period, so I can see if he got it in or about 1905.

Bob

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According to the DNB there was a officer's association for IR170 and it published a membership list in c. 1917, as well as a newsletter between 1919 and 1937. If he was a member of the association and died during that period, he no doubt would have received a write up. Maybe he even contributed to the newsletter.

In terms of the casualties, this is interesting:

D. App. 23.

Malines, November igth, 1914.

Court of the General Belgian Government.

Present :

President, Stempel.

Secretary, Stemper.

There appears on citation as witness Medical Non-com-

missioned Officer Adam Meschede, who is examined as

follows :

As to Person: My name is Adam Meschede, aged 42;

medical non-commissioned officer, ist Company, 2nd Land-

sturm Battalion Neuss, at present in Malines.

As to Case : On the evening of August 25th, between

8 and 9 o'clock, I was in a ward at the railway station

of Louvain. As trained medical non-commissioned officer

I was bandaging the wounded there. Among the wounded

two German soldiers of the ist Company of our battalion

were brought to me this evening ; their names are Kloenters

and Roesseler. In both cases I ascertained, and I declare

this on oath, that they had been injured by small shot in

the head.

On this evening I had in all about forty to fifty German

wounded brought to me.

Read over, approved, signed.

Signed : Adam Meschede,

After the importance of the oath had been pointed out to

the witness, he was duly sworn.

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper.

and

There appears on citation as witness Musketeer Franz

Bongartz, who is examined as follows :

As to Person : My name is Franz Bongartz, aged 41 ;

musketeer, ist Company, 2nd Landsturm Battalion Neuss.

at present in Malines.

As to Case : On the evening of August 25th we came

back from an engagement near Bueken, and formed up at

the station. Suddenly, as if by command, shots were

fired upon us from all sides from the surrounding houses,

as I clearly saw. Whole volleys were discharged at us. I

saw how we were being shot at from a restaurant there.

We brought out from this restaurant a few women and

one man, who were taken to the town hall. On the way

there we were shot at from the houses. On the following day,

at about 8 o'clock in the morning, I was shot in the knee.

A German sentry showed me his rifle which, as I convinced

myself, was hit by small shot. I saw clearly that civilians

fired from the houses ; the shot I received in the knee was

fired from a cellar by a civilian.

Read over, approved, signed.

Signed : Franz Bongartz.

http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/germany-auswrtiges-amt/the-german-army-in-belgium-the-white-book-of-may-1915-hci/page-22-the-german-army-in-belgium-the-white-book-of-may-1915-hci.shtml

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1905, May 6th. the other Schweder was a Major 20. 11. 00 K and CO of the I Bataillon, IR 53.

"Our Schweder" was with the Baden IR 170, had no Baden order, was a Major 11. 9. 03 N2n but, with another major of the regt., was where his assignment was stated, "aggr." which I do not understand.

1906, May 6th - "the other Schweder" had been promoted to Oberstleutnant, but was out of the unit and in the reserves, I think.

"Our Schweder", had transferred to IR 30, probably a more presdigeous regiment, in the Rhineland (Cologne), not far from where he was in 1914, and was CO of the III. Bataillon, and he had his Baden order (Rangliste code for it BZ3a). So he transferred out of Baden and was given a Baden minor order for his service. This guy was probably about three years younger than the other Schweder. Got to run to dinner, but I will go back and find him as a junior officer, which will tell us some other things.

Bob

PS: Ken, just saw your post; see above, in 1905/1906 he left IR 170 for IR 30.

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This early in the war, and on enemy terrain, and with a hostile population, men did not tend to desert or wander off. Just reading the diary of an infantry company commander in Belgium at that time, and once "incidents" started to occur, he remarked how not a single man of his entire regiment fell out on stiff marches, due to fear of the inhabitants.
This from 'Die Schlacht bei Mons' (The Battle of Mons), an official German monograph:

"Under the scorching rays of the August sun, long columns [of German forces] flowed inexorably deeper and deeper into enemy territory. Any sense of tiredness was overcome by the knowledge of serving a just cause, preserving all that was dear back home and preventing the horrors of war from entering Germany. Indeed, the men were determined to make every effort to overcome the enemy. But despite all the dedication, despite the best of intentions, many reservists and Landwehr men could not keep up with the pace of the march and had to fall out, leaving them very angry."

Robert

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Even so, he should have been able to become a member of the officer's association for IR170.

PS: Ken, just saw your post; see above, in 1905/1906 he left IR 170 for IR 30.

Further in regards to the casualties listed above; none of the missing from Hambach are listed on the war memorial. (click "Ehrenmale" then "Niederzier")

http://www.ehrenmale-kreis-dueren.de/

The war memorial for Weisweiler no longer exists.

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This from 'Die Schlacht bei Mons' (The Battle of Mons), an official German monograph:

"Under the scorching rays of the August sun, long columns [of German forces] flowed inexorably deeper and deeper into enemy territory. Any sense of tiredness was overcome by the knowledge of serving a just cause, preserving all that was dear back home and preventing the horrors of war from entering Germany. Indeed, the men were determined to make every effort to overcome the enemy. But despite all the dedication, despite the best of intentions, many reservists and Landwehr men could not keep up with the pace of the march and had to fall out, leaving them very angry."

Robert

I am straining to recall this officer's name; he was an intellectual (playwrite, theatre director, successful novelist and war novelist), spoke German, French, English, and bad Flemish (greatly amusing Flemish he spoke with), and pre-war had frequently visited Belgium, the Helion Press translated his Belgian diary and I think planned to do three of them. Title escaping me. As my father fought at Gallipoli, I can claim the Senior Moment Defense.

He discussed serious problems with men falling out, but commented, when the "incidents" were occurring, not a single man fell out out of say 2000 on a day's march. However, his was a line unit, not a Reserve or Landwehr unit, although many men, including himself, were fillers called up at mobilization. (He himself had his issue horse {Albert}, and a spare horse captured from a Belgian Lancers' unit {Albert the Belgian}) His comments on the "incidents" are interesting. He admits that many were probably Belgian Army stragglers, although he (a hunter) claimed that he could distinguish, from close-up, between the rifle smoke of civilian sporting arms (a brownish color) and the thin greyish smoke of military rifles, he sometimes perceiving both in a tactical situation. Any arms expert have a reason for this distinction, if true? He often admitted that he had no idea who was actually sniping at his troops as they marched along, and generally prevented his men from trying to pursue them.

Also, of course, after several days of marching the men would have become acclimated, and the seriously unfit probably fallen out.

Bob

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Returning to Karl Schweder, and pulling the 1895 Prussian Rangliste, the numbered infantry regiments only went up to Nr. 145, in Metz. Resorting to the index (warning: Ranglisten come with or without a 200 page index of names, the latter is much less useful, but Internet dealers might not clearly identify one that they are selling as not having an index. Check the number of pages.)

The index provides two Hauptleute Schweder, on pages 145 and 256. This far back, the Ranglisten did not include the date of rank of officers. Are we going to lose track of Karl? The page 145 entry is for one of the 15 captains of Infanterie=Regiment Freiherr von Sparr (3. westfaelisches) Nr. 16, Schweder being one of the 15 captains in this 14 company regiment. He was 6th in seniority and CO of the 9th Company. Look back about 10 posts and you see that the "other' Schweder in 1900 was also the CO of the 9th Company of IR 16, so this is not "our man".

Page 256, and "our" Karl Schweder was one of the 14 captains of this 14 company regiment, 4. Badisches Infanterie=Regiment Prinz Wilhelm Nr. 112, CO of the 2nd Company, and 11th in seniority. (Remember that I guessed that the "other" Schweder was probably a few years older.)

Note that this is also a unit from Baden. So we can assume that more likely than not he was from Baden, and probably his earlier career was in Baden as well, most likely in this regiment.

Back to 1891, and the "other" was a captain in IR 16, CO of the 5th Company. There was one Premier=Lieutenant (the Prussians were still using some French rank names), in 7. Badisches Infanterie=Regiment Nr. 142, in the 3rd Company. This must be our man. (There also was a Sous=Lieutenant von Schweder in another unit.)

In 1888 there was a Premier=Lieutenant Schweder in IR 16, in Company 15 (16 company regiment), presumably our "other" Schweder. There was another in 6. Badisches Infanterie=Regiment Nr. 114, in the 11th Company, with the lowest seniority of all among 16 first lieutenants, so he (most likely "our guy") had probably been promoted to that rank in the last 12 months.

In 1882 there were two Sous=Lieutenant in 1. Thueringisches Infanterie=Regiment Nr. 31. Can't say if one of them was "our" Schweder.

So "our" Schweder was in at least three regiments from Baden. Remember that he got a minor Baden order as he left Baden for a post in the Rhineland.

Bob

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Been some time since I read it, but sounds a bit like Advance from Mons by Walter Bloem.

Yes, Bloem.

Probably, the book. They were going to translate and publish three volumes of his diaries. The first (one I read) ended with him being hit by two rifle bullets and one shrapnel ball at the same moment.

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That would appear to be the case; google has the 1886 Rangliste available "full view" and and both are listed with IR31.

I found them listed in the Altona city directory for 1884, and sure enough, they're only listed as I. and II. :(

http://agora.sub.uni-hamburg.de/subhh-adress/digbib/view;jsessionid=396675E3B36EA1F7324D4E9C2921458C.agora3?did=c1:76689&sdid=c1:76777

I suppose Carl Schweder would be the father.

In 1888 there was a Premier=Lieutenant Schweder in IR 16, in Company 15 (16 company regiment), presumably our "other" Schweder. There was another in 6. Badisches Infanterie=Regiment Nr. 114, in the 11th Company, with the lowest seniority of all among 16 first lieutenants, so he (most likely "our guy") had probably been promoted to that rank in the last 12 months.

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Here we go. The Bavarian State Library has digitized the pre-war regimental history, which includes a register of all officers, etc. who had served with the regiment. It shows a Max Schweder and a Karl Schweder, and indeed the Karl I stated was in the "White Book" is in fact Max Karl Schweder. Birthday is quite similar, 14th instead of 24th of April, 1856; could well be a printing error.

http://www.worldcat.org/title/geschichte-des-1-thuringischen-infanterie-regiments-nr-31/oclc/286116000?title=&detail=&page=frame&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnbn-resolving.de%2Furn%3Anbn%3Ade%3Abvb%3A12-bsb00004010-0%26checksum%3D34861d37b94be5f63a8f8bf7c3a29d04&linktype=digitalObject

According to GenWiki there is also a list of former members up to 1912.

http://wiki-de.genealogy.net/IR_31

The DNB has an entry for an officer's association for this regiment, too:

http://d-nb.info/367854996

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