Whilst researching Royal Garrison Artillery units I came across a commemoration to Gunners who had been killed during a Mutiny in Singapore in February 1915.
The Royal Garrison Artillery (RGA) operated the coastal guns that protected Singapore. They were manned by the 78th and 80th Companies RGA and Indian Army Gunners from the Hong Kong and Singapore Royal Garrison Artillery (HKS-RGA). A British infantry battalion, and the Singapore Volunteers Battalion formed the garrison troops.
When war broke out the British battalion was sent to France, being replaced by the 5th Light Infantry of the Indian Army, an all Muslim unit. In February 1915 a mutiny occurred when the 5th Light Infantry of the Indian Army revolted. Amongst the mutineers were gunners from the Malay States Guides (MSG) Mule Battery.
The roots of the mutiny lay with unrest caused through propaganda being circulated advocating Indian independence, poor conditions for the soldiers and weak leadership from the battalion officers. Among the tasks the battalion undertook was the guarding of German crew from the Light Cruiser Emden who took the opportunity to fuel the Indian soldiers unrest. The trigger was an announcement that the battalion would transfer to Hong Kong. However rumours spread that the battalion was actually destined for Europe to fight the Turks, fellow Muslims.
The mutiny lasted nearly ten days, and resulted in the deaths of more than 100 people including six British officers fourteen British soldiers and fourteen civilians. The mutineers casualties were estimated at 200.
Marines from HMS Cadmus landed to support local soldiers not involved in the mutiny and the Singapore Police. Further assistance arrived when a French, a Russian and two Japanese warships arrived in Singapore, with sailors and marines reinforcing. The fighting lasted 7 days, on the 20th February , companies of the 1st/4th Battalion, King's Shropshire Light Infantry (Territorials) arrived from Rangoon to relieve the sailors and the marines.
During the mutiny 432 mutineers were captured, 205 would face trial, of which 47 were publicly executed by firing squad, the remainder receiving varying lengths of jail sentences. The commanding officer of the 5th Light Infantry was cashiered.
Amongst those killed were three officers and two other ranks from the Royal Garrison Artillery. They are commemorated on a memorial located in St Andrew's Cathedral in Singapore.
"To the glory of God and in memory of
Major R.H. Galwey
Captain F.V. Izard
Captain M.F.A. Maclean
Corporal R.V. Beagley
Gunner J. Barry
All of the Royal Garrison Artillery
who were killed in the mutiny at Singapore in February 1915
This tablet is erected by their comrades of the
Royal Garrison Artillery at Singpore."
Another memorial in the Victoria Memorial Hall remembers those from the Singapore Volunteer Corps, including a member of the Singapore Volunteer Artillery.
"To the glory of God and in sacred memory of the undermentioned officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the Singapore Volunteer Corps, who lost their lives during the mutiny of the 5th Native Light Infantry in February 1915.
Gunner P. Walton, Artillery
The Gunners are buried, together with others killed during the mutiny are buried in Kranji War Cemetery.
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The Guards Memorial is located at the edge of St James Park and Horse Guards.
It was built to commemorate those who lost their lives whilst serving with the Guards Division during the First World War. As well as commemorating those who served in the Foot Guards, the inscription on the memorial remembers the Officers, WO's, SNCO's and men of the supporting arms and logistics units which were part of the Guards Division, which includes the Royal Regiment of Artillery.
A panel at the rear of the memorial portrays an 18 pounder gun in action.
Guards Memorial 18 pounder in action
The Guards Division was formed in France in August 1915 by transferring all the Guards Battalions from the Divisions with which they were serving into the new formation.
When the Division formed, the bulk of the divisional artillery was brought in from the 16th (Irish) Division. The 74th / 75th / 76th Brigades Royal Field Artillery were formed in September 1914 by the Irish Command as New army (K2) units. They moved to Aldershot, then on to Salisbury Plain, equipping with 18 pounders. The fourth unit in the Division was the 61st (Howitzer) Brigade RFA, a New Army (K1) unit which transferred in from the 11th (Northern) Division.
LXXIV - 74 Brigade RFA (232, 233, 234, Batteries)
LXXV - 75 Brigade RFA (235, 236, 237 Batteries)
LXXVI - 76 Brigade RFA (238, 239, 240 Batteries)
The 61st Brigade RFA formed as three x 6 gun batteries. In February 1915 the Brigade re-organised into four x 4 gun batteries. It came under the command of the Guards Division in August 1915, when the 11th Division was ordered to the Mediterranean, and deployed to France.
L61 LXI (Howitzer) Brigade RFA (193,194,195 Batteries)
The Divisional Ammunition Column was originally raised by the 16th (Irish) Division, transferring to the Guards Division. Three Medium Trench Mortar Batteries (X / Y / Z) were formed in March 1916, and a Heavy Trench Mortar Battery (V Guards) in May.
The 61st (Howitzer) Brigade was broken up in November 1916 and the units left the Division. D/61 Battery would transfer to 50th (Northumbrian) Division.
A query from a friend about anti-aircraft artillery in WW1 lead to a realisation that the first Zeppelin successfully shot down was actually the result of anti-aircraft fire from the Gunners. Zeppelin L15 was brought down on the night of 31st March / 1st April 1916, ahead of the action of William Leefe Robinson on the 2nd September 1916, for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross.
At the start of the First World War there was no Anti-Aircraft organisation beyond a few guns and an awareness of the threat from German airships. On the declaration of war the Royal Navy was given responsibility for the defence of London. Fledgling Royal Garrison Artillery units, supported by searchlights manned by Royal Engineers, were deployed to protect key sites, mainly naval facilities and armaments.
On the night of 19 / 20 January 1915, the first Zeppelin air raid on the United Kingdom occurred when two airships bombed King's Lynn and Great Yarmouth in Norfolk. London was bombed for the first time on 31st May 1915, and attacks continued across the UK. Each raid brought about further enhancements to air defences, including the deployment of more anti-aircraft guns of varying types and searchlights.
By February 1916 an Anti-Aircraft section had been established on the Home Defence Staff and responsibility for engaging all enemy aircraft over land had been allocated to the Army. London had 65 anti-aircraft guns mounted for defence of the capital.
The first Zeppelin to be brought down by anti-aircraft fire from the Gunners is attributed to the Purfleet Detachment, 3rd Company Essex and Sussex RGA (TF). The guns at Purfleet consisted of a 3 inch 20 cwt and two 1 pounder Pom Pom ex naval guns. The 3 inch 20 cwt AA gun had an effective firing range of 16,000 feet (4,900 metres).
The guns were in place to defend 5 magazines, with Purfleet Camp and a munitions factory in close proximity.
On the evening of 31st March 1916, five Zeppelins crossed the North Sea to conduct a bombing raids, L22 would attack Humberside, L13 / L14 / L15 / L16 targets in the South East. The Zeppelins were sighted as they crossed the coast, the first bombs were dropped on a munitions factory at Stowmarket. This signalled the start of the raid resulting in air defenses coming to full alert.
On hearing the approach of a Zeppelin, Anti-Aircraft guns at Purfleet / Abbey Wood / Erith Marsh / Southern Outfall Plumstead Common and Plumstead Marsh opened fire and Searchlights lit up the sky.
As the L15 proceeded up the Thames, it was caught in the light beams.
The Purfleet Gunners were credited with hitting L15. This caused damage to four of the sixteen hydrogen shells, mainly in the centre of the airship, critically damaging the airship which began to lose height.
A contemporary report records;
"We received the alarm about nine o'clock. In less than three minutes we were at our posts and ready to fire. We picked the 'Zepp' up about 9:45 p.m., flying at about 15,000 feet, and coming over from the North East. Naturally we started to fire right away before searchlights had even picked her up, but we didn't hit her, although we got perilously near.
"Very soon after we started, the gun at………… got busy and the searchlight too. It was a grand sight. She was lit up like a silver cigar, and we could see the shells bursting around her. Presently a shot from the gun caught the Zeppelin in the stern and a little flame shot out from the envelope, whether from our bursting shell or the balloonette I couldn't tell from our position. Anyhow, the explosion seemed to throw it round, and at the same time it dropped by the stern with nose in the air, of course we were busy with our gun, but the boys couldn't help making a slight pause to shout 'She's hit"
At 22:00 Zeppelin L15 signaled "Have been hit. Request Ostend keep watch on airship wave length L15" Heading for home, the L15 dropped jettison its bombs over Raynham and Averly and the crew began to throw non- essential equipment into the Thames.
As it began to descend the stricken Zeppelin was attacked by a BE 2C aircraft from 19 squadron RFC piloted by 2Lt Alfred de Bathe Brandon. Brandon attempted to destroy L15 by dropping incendiary bombs, and Ranken explosive darts, however he was not successful.
L15's final signal was at 23:15 " Require immediate assistance between Thames and Ostend L15", after which the radio and other secret material was dropped overboard.
Just after midnight, L15 diched in the sea off Margate near the Kentish Knock lightship. One member of the crew drowned, the remaining 16 were rescued by HMT Olivine, transferring the prisoners to HMS Vulture.
Attempts were made to tow L15 to Margate, but the airship sank, resulting in parts of it subsequently being washed ashore where many claimed parts as souvenirs.
The prisoners form L15 were landed ashore and taken by train to Chatham where they were marched under a military guard to the detention barracks and subsequently interrogated by War Office officials.
The action was recognised by Field Marshall Viscount French in a signal congratulating the Gunners on their success.
The officer commanding the Purfleet Detachment, Captain John Harris wrote to Sir Charles Wakefield, Lord Mayor of London to claim a reward of £500 which had been promised to the first gunners to shoot down a Zeppelin. In the end the War Office would not allow such an award, feeling that those involved were performing their duties. It was also concluded that " The success achieved was due to the concerted action of a team and not the individual skill of any member of it"
It was agreed that the Lord Mayor would instead commission a gold medal which would be presented to those serving in the units involved with the overall action. The medal shows a 3inc 20 cwt gun, the date of the action, and the message WELL HIT. The individual recipients name is engraved on the medal. A total of 325 medals were presented.
Gunner units credited with being involved in the engagement:
3 Coy Essex & Sussex RGA (TF)
1 x 3 inch 20 cw
2 x 1 pdr Pom Pom
1 x 3 inch 20 cwt
5 Coy Cornwall RGA (TF)
2 x 6 pounder
2 x 3 inch 20 cwt
1 x 13 pounder
1 x 3 inch 20 cwt
1 x 13 pounder
Glamorgan RGA (TF)
1 x 3 inch 5 cwt
Royal Arsenal Defences
1 x 3 inch 5 cwt
2 x 6 pounder
2 x 1 pdr Pom Pom
The searchlight units were drawn from the London Electrical Engineers RE (TF) and a detachment from the Tyne Electrical Engineers RE (TF) who manned a searchlight at Erith.
Related Forum Posts
Interesting video from The Great War channel on YouTube.
Outlines the development of pre war artillery for France, Germany and Britain in relation to their doctrine.
France - Canon de 75 modele
Germany - 7.7cm Feldkanone 96 / 10.5 cm Feldhaubitze / 42cm Krupp "Big Berthas"
Britain - QF 18 pounder gun / BL 60 pounder gun / QF 4.5 inch howitzer / 9.2 inch heavy siege howitzer
An observation officer of Royal Field Artillery orders to open fire on Germans during World War I in France.
An observation officer of Royal Field Artillery orders on phone to open fire on Germans during World War I. Soldiers run and enter their quarters in the gun-pits. Soldiers bring shells in special jackets. The shells are handed over to the gunners in the gun-pits. Shrapnel and explosives are fired at enemy continuously. Soldiers load and fire an 18-pounder gun. The observation officer orders on phone to change the range of firing. Howitzers continuously fire at Germans in field. Location: France. Date: 1918.
Aden, located near the entrance to the Red Sea, was vital for the security of the route through the Suez Canal. The port came under British control in 1838 as a base on the route to India. In gained increased prominence with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. The Ottoman Empire seized control of Yemen to the north, whilst Britain established protectorates with local rulers in the Aden hinterland.
Stationed in Aden in 1914 were 61, 76, 77 Company RGA each quipped with 4 x 6 inch guns.
When war broke out in August 1914, the Ottoman Empire remained outside the conflict till November when it attacked Britain's ally Russia. This led to Britain declaring war on the Turks, who then launched at attack on Aden. The Turks were driven off by the Aden Brigade, which was then strengthened by the 29th Infantry Brigade who was en route to the Suez Canal.
No 1 Camel Battery was equipped with 15 pounder BLC gun, a 76mm (3 inch ) weapon. It had a range of 5,260 metres (5,750 yards) firing shrapnel shells. A box trailed gun which together with it's ammunition limber was towed by 4 camels.
In July 1915, the Turks once again launched at attack on Lahej , the British response being to send a mobile force, which included the No 1 Camel Battery and Malay States Mountain Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery. The British move to Lahej was conducted in blistering heat, some Arab camel drivers from the logistics train deserted, and the Camel Battery became stuck in sand. As a consequence only part of the force reached Lahej and without effective artillery support they were beaten back by the numerically superior Turks.
The mobile force withdrew back to Aden, where the port it's self was protected by guns from 4 naval ships. This move alarmed the Viceroy of India (Aden was under his jurisdiction), as it placed Aden's water supply at Sheikh ‘Uthman at risk when the Turks occupied the town. Major General D.L.B. Shaw, Aden commander, was relieved of his command The 28th Indian Brigade (together with 1/B Battery, HAC, 1/1st Berkshire Battery, RHA) was despatched from Egypt to strengthen the Aden force, under a new commander of Aden, Maj. Gen. Sir George Younghusband. The first priority was to launch an action to regain control of the water supply, as a result Sheikh ‘Uthman was secured.
In June 1916, the Arab Revolt in Hejaz against Ottoman Rule, which was incited by the British (including the actions of TE Lawrence), forced the Turks to turn their attention away from Aden. The British continued to harass the Turks, with operations by mobile columns, supported by aircraft (including sea planes) making some gains, notably the capture of Hatum, an action supported by the No 1 Camel Battery.
Aden Field Force. 15pdr. Camel Battery R. F. A, returning to Sheikh Othman after the action of January 5th, 1918 (attack and capture of Hatum)
Imperial War Museum © Q 13063
On May 15th 1916, 41 Siege Battery joined 25th Heavy Artillery Group and deployed into a position in Albert. On 26th June the war diary records "Preliminiary Bombardment proper begins", signalling the forthcoming Battle of the Somme. The battery fired 800 rounds each day, on support and communication trenches, in the Thiepval Salient up to "Attack day", 1st July 1916. The battery contined to engage targets for the next two weeks.
The 14th July saw the battery firing on trenches, enemy artillery, Pozieres and Courcelette, expending 327 rounds. It would seem whilst replenishing ammunition a German round hit one of the ammunition wagons.
The war diary records "a party got caught by a shell while unloading ammunition the following casualties occurred, in the Right Section position"
Soldiers Who Died in The Great War (SWDGW) lists four of the Gunners buried in the communal grave under Durham RGA, all of who were born and enlisted in Hartlepool.
Durham Royal Garrison Artillery
Gnr JP Frankland
Gnr JH Henderson
Gnr TW Lee
Gnr J Sweeting
Royal Garrison Artillery
Gnr JW Burr
Gnr S Caldicot
A/Bdr FE Goldsworth
Gnr E Hickman
Gnr CJ Hutchings
Cpl JJ Mulhill
Gnr CE Scott
Army Service Corps
Pte G Atkins
The two gunners listed as died and not in the communal grave, Gunners O'Boyle and Watson, are buried along side each other in Heilly Station Cemetery, Mericourt -Labbe. Situated near Amiens, this was the location of Casualty Clearing Stations where it is presumed they died of wounds, as recorded in the 41 SB war diary.
Gunner O'Boyle is listed in Soldiers Who Died in The Great War (SWDGW) under Durham RGA, born and enlisted in Hartlepool.
Durham Royal Garrison Artillery
Gunner J O'Boyle
Royal Garrison Artillery
Gunner J Watson
Routes In and Out - Tick
Flash Cover - Tick
Space for Ammunition - Tick
Firm Dry Platform - no problem middle of a Desert - Tick
What could go possibly go wrong...……………..
The site is dedicated to Gunner A H Deadman who served with the Battery.
45th Siege Battery R.G.A.
The Battery was equipped with two 9.2 inch mark VI rail guns which were constructed from surplus naval guns mounted on railway platforms by the Elswick Ordnance Company, Newcastle upon Tyne.
The 45th Siege Battery was formed 17th July 1915 at Sheerness from half of 18 Siege Battery. The latter was formed 1st February 1915, also in Sheerness.
The 45th SB deployed to France 31st August 1915, arriving in Boulogne the following day. The guns arrived from Southampton on 2nd September. The battery moved to the front arriving at the Beurvy Siding on 13th September 1915. The battery would fire it's first rounds on the 17th September.
The site details the firing positions of the battery from 1915 to 1918 which is supported by maps and pictures of the locations. The maps of the positions are especially interesting as it gives a good appreciation of the deployment of railway artillery.
45th Siege Battery Operational Sites 1915-1918
45th Siege Battery Site Photographs 1915-1918 / 2016
The war site contains the war diaries of the Battery.
45th Siege Battery RGA War Diaries
The Richards Battery was formed on 16th June 1916 with details from 105 Siege Battery and the 51st (Highland) Division Heavy Trench Mortars. On the 21st June Captain Richards and three subalterns took over 3 x 220mm French Guns. The battery included 80 ORs from the 51st (Highland) Division, though they would return to their unit on 14th July. The Battery was assisted in their training by Brigadier Mirambeau and two French Artillery Junior NCO's.
The story of the Richards Battery appears to start with the arrival of 106 Siege Battery personnel in theatre without guns. They were trained on French 220 mm Mortars, the personnel of the battery then proceeding to La Targette 6.5 km north of Arras, taking over guns and stores in position from a French Battery, on the 9th June 1916. They would register the gun before personnel were ordered, on the 14th June, to proceed to Abeele, near Ypres. They took one of the four mortars out of action , leaving three in situ. (WD 106 SB - June 14th 1916)
It would now seem that there were three mortars that were required to be manned. On the 16th June, Captain DJR Richards formed a battery. It would later take over 3 X French 220mm' guns', at La Targette, presumably those left by 106 Siege Battery. With no establishment, it would seem Captain Richards would need to find some men to man the 220 mm Mortars. He received details from 105 Siege Battery, who would have knowledge of working on French equipment, and 51st Trench Mortar Battery, who would understand mortars.
As this was ad hoc battery with no establishment and no British Guns it would have fallen outside of the numbering system, hence it's title being taken from the Battery Commander, a practice used by the Royal Artillery before a numbering system came in.
22cm How Mle 16 220mm 1915
The Battery's first action took place on 25th June 1916. Located at LATARGETTE 6.5km north of ARRAS it conducted a firing programme on numerous trench junctions and strongpoints, repeating the program the following day.
Captain Richards left the Battery that bears his name on 1st July 1916 to take command of 105 Siege Battery. He would go onto win the DSO and MC and rise to the rank of Brigadier commanding anti-aircraft units in the Second World War.
Over the next month the Battery would conduct various shoots under the command of the 50th Heavy Artillery Group (HAG), including an interesting night shoot on the 18th July against German searchlights.
The Battery was visited by King George V on 9th August 1916, who watched them fire 3 rounds on THELVS MILL.
The last recorded action of the Richards Battery was on the 3rd September 1916. The XVII Corps Heavy Artillery diary details 'Richards Battery expended it's last five rounds on an enemy bombstore'.
Commemorating those who lost their lives in the First and Second World Wars, the memorial was unveiled in October 1925 by H. R. H the Duke of Connaught. It was dedicated to the 49,076 Gunners who lost their lives during the First World War.
The memorial was designed by Charles Sargeant Jagger MC. It features bronze figures and sculptured reliefs depicting the Gunners activities in WW1, surmounted by a sculptured 9.2 inch Howitzer.
The origins of the Battery lie with the 5th Durham Battery, 4th Northumbrian (County of Durham) Howitzer Brigade. Prior to the War the Brigade was headquartered in South Shields, on the south side of the mouth of the River Tyne. The Hebburn Battery lay 5 miles upstream on the south bank of the Tyne.
The men were killed in a single incident on the evening of 18th April 1918. This evening it is exactly 100 years since they were killed, so I though it would be appropriate to leave a post to remember those men.
After many years I found what actually happened on that fateful evening from an account in Regimental Archives:
Gronnenhem April 1918
The morning brought sad news from our wagon lines. The bombardment which had provided us with a lively interlude had visited our comrades with disastrous results. A shell struck the barn in which they were sleeping, bursting amongst the sleepers with deadly effect. Many of the survivors rushed for the open, to be met by a second shell, adding materially to the already heavy list of dead and wounded.
The men are buried together in a single row in Plot II Row A in the Choques Military Cemetery.
Grave - Killed 18th April 1918
1. Hillbeck A Driver MM 2555
2. Wilson F Driver 127301
3. Allcott H Driver MM 4678
4. Fewings RT Gunner 52505
5. Harris AS Gunner 10235
6. Hunt JAF Gunner 234324
7. Bennet H Gunner 10315
8. Jewell WS Driver 1288
9. Maidment A Driver 10318
10. Pearce EG Driver 82773
11. Rich WG Driver 4546
Grave - Died 25th April 1918
12. Richardson JH Driver 755887
In March 2018 I was able to visit the Graves of the men.
Northumbria Gunner Blog: Lys - Choques Military Cemetery
Source: Deutsches Hisorisches Museum
The gun was captured near Erquingehm-Lys where the British had built a rail spur to fire railway artillery.
In April 1918, the Germans launched Operation Georgette quickly pushing the British back, capturing the 12 inch Railway Howitzer, named the First Consol at Erquninhem-Lys near Armentieres. The First Consol was one of six 12inch howitzers captured during the German Spring Offensives and according to my correspondent was sent to the Krupp Factory in Germany.
The coastal units would also provide the basis for training and the raising of future RGA Batteries.
The following Siege Batteries were formed from the Tynemouth RGA (TF) personnel and or / at Tynemouth
Sources: Fredericks Lineage vol 2 page 702 to 708 / Siege Battery 94 1914-1918 / The History of the 135th Siege Battery RGA
21 Siege Battery - formed 15th January 1915 at Tynemouth. Equipped with 9.2 in howitzers
25 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 15th Feb 1915. Armed with four 8" Howitzers went out to the Western Front on 3 Aug 15
35 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 15th Feb 1915
44 Siege Battery - formed at Sheerness 12th July 1915. Formed from Tynemouth RGA (TF) and regulars from units in Gibraltar.
46 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 30th July 1915 Nucleus from Cornwall RGA
53 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 25th August 1915
80 Siege Battery - formed Tynemouth 15 Nov 1915
94 Siege Battery - formed 16th December 1915 at Tynemouth. Personnel 40 % New Army / Regulars from Tynemouth RGA & 60% Durham RGA. Deployed to France April 1916 with 4 x 9.2in Howitzer
100 Siege Battery - formed 13th January 1916 Tynemouth Defences
115 Siege Battery -- formed at Tynemouth 3rd March 1916
128 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 8th April 1916
135 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 3rd May 1916 - Nucleus from 12 & 47 Company's RGA (Tynemouth) and recruits from Derby
169 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 13th June 1916
186 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 13th July 1916
217 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 13th July 1916 - Equipped with 4 x 6in howitzers (26cwt) Went to Western Front 2oth Jan 1917 Increased to 4 guns 10-Mar-1918
223 siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 12th August 1916
247 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 13th September 1916
260 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 28th September 1916
288 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 1st November 1916 - Went out to the Western Front 4th April 1917. Equipped with of 4 x 8in Howitzers
302 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 17th January 1916
339 Siege Battery - formed at Tynemouth 15th January 1917
A review of Soldiers who died in the Great War for the Tynemouth RGA details 18 soldiers who lost their lives. They served in the following Siege Batteries; 13, 44, 76, 100, 113, 132, 135, 199, 228, 286, 290, and 384. In addition one Tynemouth RGA gunner was lost with the 1st/1st (Essex) Heavy Battery. This shows the variety of batteries with which Tynemouth RGA gunners served, and includes service in Salonika and Mesopotamia.
Surname Initials Rank Unit
Baker IO BSM 228th Siege Bty.
Bennett W Gunner 286th Siege Bty.
Brown JE Bombardier 113th Siege Bty.
Chapman E Gunner Tynemouth
Daniel F Gunner Royal Garrison Artillery
Flett R Gunner 44th Siege Bty.
Gallon J Gunner Royal Garrison Artillery
Hills J Gunner 76th Siege Bty.
Howe HD Gunner 290th Siege Bty.
Kelly J Bombardier 132nd Siege Bty.
Levitt W Gunner 13th Siege Bty.
Lynch W Gunner 135th Siege Bty.
Moffatt AE Gunner 199th Siege Bty.
Mordue T Gunner 384th Siege Bty.
Neil A Gunner 1st/1st (Essex) Heavy Bty.
Richardson SG Bombadier 100th Siege Bty.
Todd G Gunner 384th Siege Bty.
RA300 - Royal Artillery Tercentenary - Royal Review
To commemorate the Bi-Centenary on 26th May 1916 a parade was held at Woolwich adjacent to St George's Garrison Church.
What of the Royal Regiment of May 1916……
The strength was over 408,000 officers and OR's, representing nearly 14% of the Army. Of the strength, 321,000 were manning the guns of the divisional artillery (RHA / RFA), and 87, 000 serving the Royal Garrison Artillery.
The Ubiquitous Royal Regiment was serving on all Fronts with the main concentration if France and Flanders.
In Sinai and Egypt the defence of the Suez Canal from Turkish disruption or capture was vital for shipping routes to India, and the British Empire . In Mesopotamia British Forces were trying to exert their force in that region having lost Kut in a long Siege at month earlier. Whilst in East Africa reinforcements were arriving to counteract German forces. A garrison was still being maintained in India, whilst coastal stations and ports throughout the Empire were being protected by the Coastal Artillery of the RGA.
It should also be remembered that in the UK many Gunners were undergoing training, particularly to man newly formed Siege Batteries. The Military Conscription Act became law in January 1916, so the RA expansion included newly conscripted men. There had been a number of zeppelin raids in northern and southern England in April 1916, so Anti-Aircraft defence was gaining in importance. In Ireland, tensions were still high following the Easter Rising in April when artillery was deployed onto the streets of Dublin.
In May 1916 there was a re-organisation of the RA taking place. Brigades were being re-organised to consist of three gun and one howitzer batteries, leading to the breakup of howitzer brigades. Units were to be numbered, the old Territorial Force tiles disappeared.
The British Army manned 90 miles of the Western Front, continuously from Boesinghe to Maricourt . The Second Army was in the Ypres Salient, with the First Army to its south in the Armentieres sector. Third Army covered the Arras sector, Fourth Army the Somme. The Fifth, Reserve Army, had been formed only a few days before the RA Bi-Centenary.
The war on the Western Front had stagnated in an artillery war of attrition requiring vast amounts of ammunition and guns. The failure of the attack on Aubers Ridge in March 1915 due to lack of ammunition had brought about a change of government and the establishment of the Ministry of Munitions. In the week of 26th May nearly 2. 5 million artillery rounds were produced, some in Woolwich Arsenal nearby to the Bi-Centenary parade.
In the month of May 1916, the number of guns of all calibres on the Western from rose from 3,700 to over 4,000. The number of rounds expended during the week of the Bi-Centenary the Western Front was 120,922 Rounds of all calibres.
The Fourth Army was preparing for the 'Big Push'. On the 26th May Generals Foffre and de Castelnau held a conference with Sir Douglas Haig and Sir William Robertson at Montreuil to discuss the situation at Verdun and the necessity for the British to launch an attack in June to relieve the pressure on the French Army. Over 1,000 guns and 1.6 million rounds were being readied for the Somme Offensive
Whilst commemorations took place in Woolwich, 7 Gunners would lose their lives that day.
The gun was deployed on the Collywell Bay Branch line which was in the process of completion as war broke out in August 1914, and the project was halted.
Source: http://www.disused-stations.org.uk/b/brierdene/index.shtml / http://www.disused-stations.org.uk/c/collywell_bay/
An order was placed on 30th August with the North Eastern Railway's Gateshead Works to mount an 9.2 inch Naval Gun on a 54 ton trolley wagon. The job was completed on 12th September and the gun was moved to Hartley.
The 9.2 inch naval gun fired a 172 kg ( 380 lbs) shell out to a range in excess of 18,300 metres (20,000 yards ), so the Harltley gun could cover the approaches to both the River Blyth and River Tyne. The Tyne was well defended with the Tynemouth Castle and Spanish Batteries to the north, and Frenchman's Point battery to the south. The Blyth was undefended.
In 1913, anti-invasion exercises had been conducted on the NE Coast where landings near the River Blyth and River Wear were unopposed, highlighting weaknesses in costal defences. It was concluded permanent defences were required to cover the River Blyth, but due to the expense they were never constructed. With the outbreak of war in 1914, the urgency to defend Blyth may have resulted in the deployment of the railway gun to Hartley.
Permanent defences were constructed in Blyth in 1915. https://blythbattery.org.uk/
The Colywell Bay Branch never opened to traffic, it's rails were lifted during the war to provide urgent war materials, the unfinished stations and infrastructure abandoned.
Bridge at Hartley
© IWM (IWM 430) UBIQUE - OUR GUNNERS IN THE GREAT WAR [MAIN TITLE]
The work of the Royal Field Artillery and Royal Garrison Artillery, mainly on the Western Front, 1916-1917. Drivers water their horses at a trough. A brigade of RFA 18-pounders moves off from their camp ground. Other 18-pounders move past dead Highlanders (from IWM 191 BATTLE OF THE SOMME). A battery of 18-pounders in line fires. Two 60-pounders being fired. An officer climbs a ladder into a tree as an observation post. A 60-pounder battery fires under scrim. Rear view of an 18-pounder firing. Some 9.2-inch howitzers fire from a chalk pit. Finally, 60-pounders in action in Mesopotamia.
The HKS-RGA manned coastal batteries in Hong Kong, Singapore and Mauritius. A mountain battery was formed in Hong Kong in 1912 using Indian Army personnel. In November 1915 the HKS-RGA mountain battery was sent to Egypt with a nucleus from 1 Company Hong Kong and augmentees from Singapore and Mauritius. The battery was equipped with 6 x 10 pounder guns using mules as pack animals.
The 10 pounder mountain gun was introduced in 1901. It broke down for transport, the barrel being in two parts which screwed together. The gun had no recoil mechanism which resulted in it moving around when fired. Its calibre was 2.75 inches (970 mm), firing a 10 pound (4.54 kg) shell. The guns maximum range was 3,700 yards (3,380 metres) firing shrapnel and 6,000 yards (5,490 metres) firing HE.
10 Pounder Mountain Gun
10 Pounder Mountain Gun
On reaching Egypt, the battery was attached to the Imperial Cavalry Brigade and sections were deployed along the Suez Canal. In March 1916 they moved to Libya to support forces engaged in suppressing an uprising of the Sanussi Tribe. When the Turks began attacks in Sinai, the HKS-RGA together with other troops were moved back to the Suez Canal. The Turkish attacks were blocked. In response, the British mounted a show of force with raids on Bir El Mazar and Bir El Maghara. Both actions were supported by the HKS-RGA, after which they withdrew to Abassi, on the outskirts of Cairo, where the battery mules were exchanged for camels.
On the 19th December 1916 the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (ICCB) was formed as part of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF). The brigade consisted of of 4 x Infantry Camel Battalions ( 2 x Australian / 1 x New Zealand / 1 x British) and a Machine Gun Company. It included a signals section, engineer troop, field ambulance and a brigade train. The No 1 Mountain Battery, Hong Kong & Singapore RGA would provide artillery support. The brigade's logistic support included the Brigade Ammunition Column. Total brigade strength was 4,150 men and 4,800 camels.
INSPECTION OF THE IMPERIAL CAMEL CORPS IWM Inspection of the Imperial Camel Corps Hong Kong-Singapore Mountain Battery with 10 pounder guns ---> 4 mins 40 secs Probably 3rd or 4th Battalion, Imperial Camel Corps, with its camel battery, the Hong Kong-Singapore Mountain Battery, training on the Palestine Front, early 1917.
The display begins with a parade and marchpast, followed by men of the ICC setting out for a patrol in the desert and drawing river water for their camels. This is broken by sequences of horse and mule riders in the desert, and a demonstration of assembling its guns by the Hong Kong-Singapore Mountain Battery of the Indian Army, attached to the Imperial Camel Corps
(this was the only camel-mounted battery equipped with 10-pounder breechloading mountain guns on active service).
Source: Imperial War Museum Catalogue number IWM 6
The Brigade's first action would take place on the 23rd December when the ANZAC Mounted Division and the Imperial Camel Brigade captured Magdhaba. The Turks had withdrawn from El Arish on the 20th December, which was then occupied by the British. In order to cut off retreating Turks, the British advanced to seize Magdhaba. The HKS-RGA supported the engagement, the Battery Commander, Major William Agnew Moore, being awarded the Distinguished Service Order.
In February 1916 the battery re-equipped with 2.75 inch mountain guns. The more modern gun had a recoil buffer and recuperator, which provided greater accuracy. Firing a 12 pound (5.7 kg) shell it had a maximum range of 5,600 yards, (5,120 metres) when firing shrapnel and 5,800 yards (5,300 metres) firing HE.
2.75 inch Mountain Gun
2.75 inch Mountain Gun
The 2.75in mountain gun was carried by six camels , additional camels would carry first line ammunition, gun stores and spares.
Source: War Establishment 699/47-No 1 Mountain Battery, Hong Kong & Singapore RGA dated 30 August 1917
The battery was established for 15 British personnel (5+10), 240 Indian personnel (3+237), 21 horses and 436 camels.
British Personnel 15
S Sgts/Sgts 4
Indian Personnel 240
Riding Horses 21
Riding Camels 251
Pack Camels 18
Each of the three two gun sections had 3 riding horses, 73 riding camels and 47 pack camels. As well as transporting the guns and their detachments, the camels carried the first line ammunition of 720 rounds shrapnel (120 rounds per gun), 42 rounds HE (7 rounds per gun) and 28 illuminating rounds (4 rounds per gun).
The Brigade Ammunition Colum carried the mountain battery's second line ammunition and small arms ammunition for all of the Imperial Camel Brigades .
Source: War Establishment 699/47-Brigade Ammunition Column dated 30 August 1917.
The Brigade Ammunition Colum was established for 2 British personnel (1+1), 15 Indian personnel (0+15), 59 Egyptian Camel Drivers and 126 camels.
Veterinary Sgt 1
Other Ranks 15
Egyptian Camel Drivers 59
Riding Camels 16
Baggage Camels 110
The Battery would support the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (ICCB) as the campaign in Sinai and Palestine developed. The advance continued with the capture of Bir El Hassana. The next major objective was Gazza. An unsuccessful attempt to take the town in March 1917 resulted in British forces being forced to withdraw, assisted by effective covering fires from the HKS-RGA. Another attempt in April also failed. The EEF forces short of ammunition withdrew to resupply and refit. The campaign resumed in the autumn when the Egyptian Expeditionary Force captured Beersheba and finally took Gaza. Ottoman forces began to withdraw, with the EEF in pursuit, crossing into Palestine.
As the campaign wore on into 1918, the ICCB moved into the Jordan Valley and the nature of the terrain changed. With the desert left behind, in June 1918 units of the Imperial Camel Corps began to be convert to horses and units re-assigned. It is believed the HKS-RGA reverted to using mules as pack animals.
The 105th and 106thSiege Batteries deployed to the Western Front with personnel only. They arrived in theatre on 17th May 1916 and proceeded to Le Parcq, 30 miles east of Arras.
105 Siege Battery were issued with 4 x 120 mm long guns, and after a period of training were assigned to XVII Corps Heavy Artillery located in the Arras Sector.
The battery fired its first rounds on the 10th June 1916.
French 120mm Long Guns
106 Siege Battery took over 4 x 220 mm mortars on 27th May. The war dairy records the guns had no wheels, no limbers, no ammunition and were deficient in stores. The guns and what stores they had were loaded onto lorries and the battery moved to billets in Tinques, 15 miles east of Arras. The Battery officers and 8 NCO's proceeded to Arras to receive instructions on the use of the French Mortars from a French Battery in action.
220 mm TR mle 1915/1916
After a period of training, the personnel of the battery proceeded to La Targette 6.5 km north of Arras, taking over guns and stores in position from a French Battery, on the 9th June 1916. They would register the guns before being ordered on the 14th June to proceed to Abeele, near Ypres. They took one of the four mortars out of action , leaving three in situ. (WD 106 SB - June 14th 1916).
It would now seem that there were three mortars that were required to be manned. On the 16th June, Captain DJR Richards from 105 Siege Battery formed a new battery. It would later take over 3 X French 220mm' guns', at La Targette, presumably those left by 106 Siege Battery. With no establishment, it would seem Captain Richards would need to find some men to man the 220 mm Mortars. He received details from 105 Siege Battery, who would have knowledge of working on French equipment, and 51st Trench Mortar Battery, who would understand mortars.
As this was ad hoc battery with no establishment and no British Guns, one would think it would have fallen outside of the numbering system, hence it's title being taken from the Battery Commander, a practice used by the Royal Artillery before numbering systems came in.
The ad hoc grouping would take over 3 x French 220 mm Howitzers on 21st June, and were supplemented by 80 other ranks of the 51st (H) DAC. They were assisted by French brigadier and two French JNCO's, firing their first round on 26th June.
Captain Richards, to whom the Battery was named after was posted to back 105 Siege Battery to take command , and the men from the 105th SB returned to their unit.
The two French equipped batteries (Richards and 105 SB) remained in action to September 1916. Richards Battery remained at LaTargette, firing for the King on 9th August 1916. The last record of the battery was a shoot on September 3rd. 105 Siege Battery would move to the Somme sector on 3rd July 1916. It handed over its French guns on the 18th September 1916, re-equipping with 6 inch howitzers.
British troops firing an 18 pounder field piece. A battery of 18 pounders lined up and firing near a tree line. Each gun rolls back from recoil after firing. British 18 pounder artillery firing from variety of places, including covered entrenched positions; open field positions; and camouflaged positions.
A British 127mm (60 pounder) heavy field artillery piece being fired.
British BL 6 inch 26cwt howitzers being fired.
Field artillery firing in salvos from hidden positions
. A field piece firing from a barn.
A 9.2" BL Mk1 Siege Howitzer firing.
A battery of 60pdr Mk1 Field Guns firing from behind a berm.
British 18 pounders firing in a field. A 9.2" Railway Mounted Gun firing.
A battery of British 8-inch howitzers firing.
Troops digging trenches near bodies of fallen soldiers.
Artillery troops moving field artillery by horses.
A British siege mortar firing.
Explosions in no-mans-land from artillery.
Troops taking a meal break in a trench.
In October 1899 the Right Honourable Sir Henry Brackenbury was appointed Director General of Ordnance. He undertook a review of artillery and concluded there were deficiencies in armament and no reserve of guns. He came up with a series of papers to address the shortcomings including the replacement of obsolete guns.
The situation was highlighted in South Africa where the Boer Artillery outgunned the Royal Artillery. This raised serious concerns as to the ability of the Gunners to deal with threats from a more sophisticated enemy, notably Germany who had supplied the Boers with artillery.
To meet what would today be termed an Urgent Operational Requirement (UOR), Brackenbury requested £15 million. The Mowat Committee was formed to consider Brackenbury's recommendations and as a result of the committee's work, Parliament voted £10 million pounds for the purchase of guns from ….. Germany. The British would purchase the 76mm Quick Firing Ehrhardt gun.
The order was placed with the Rheinische Metallwaaren- und Maschinen-Fabrik for 108 guns, 275 limbers, 162 ammunition wagons, stores, and 54,000 rounds. These were delivered five months after the contract was signed. The Government expressed a wish that no further supply of guns would be made. This lead to the formation of Equipment Committees who called upon " the inventive genius of the country" to come up with new guns to meet the Army's requirements.
The guns Ehrhardt Guns werereceived in secrecy at the Woolwich Arsenal and entered service with the Royal Field Artillery in 1901. The gun was termed the Ordnance 15 Pounder QF.
The efforts of the Equipment Committees led to the development and introduction of new equipment's. In 1906 the cavalry Division and Six divisions re-equipped with 13 pounder & 18 pounder. When the Territorial Force as formed in 1908, the Ordnance 15 Pounder QF was issued to the Royal Horse Artillery Batteries.
STATION OF UNITS 1914
ROYAL HORSE ARTILLERY TERRITORIAL FORCE BATTERIES
15 Pounder QF Ehrhardt Gun - HAC Fargo Camp 1914
The 15 Pounder QF Ehrhardt gun would see active service with the TF RHA in the Middle East. A Battery HAC and the Nottinghamshire RHA were engaged in the Senussi Campaign in Egypt and Libya. In Aden B Battery HAC and the Berkshire RHA were in action during July 1915 in the recapture of the Sheikh Othman District ( a key water supply to Aden) from the Turks.
15 Pounder QF Ehrhardt Gun - HAC Sheikh Othman 1914
In 1916 the Territorial Force Royal Horse Artillery Batteries were equipped with the 13 pounder.
15 Pounder QF Ehrhardt Gun
Rate of Fire
20 rounds per minute
A fascinating account from IN THE CLOUDS ABOVE BAGDHAD John Edward Tennant
"A curious outstanding feature of fighting on the flats of Mesopotamia was the medley of artillery observation ladders which sprang up out of the desert whenever the guns went into action. Without them it was quite impossible for a battery commander to see anything at all. They were run up some distance from the batteries as far forward as possible, and invariably acted as a magnet to the enemy gun fire. The utmost gallantry was displayed by gunner officers, who remained perched behind a bullet proof shield on the top of one of these swaying poles directing fire, until the smoke and dust around them became too thick to see through, or they were blown off the platform by an accurately placed crump"
It looks like it was not only the British that adopted this method...… Limber Pole Ladder.
It was written in 1915 by Gunner BS Chandler whilst recovering in an Army Hospital in Cheltenham. It was written in a scrap book collated by recovering soldiers.
The 3 Victoria Crosses were won by Captain Edward Bradbury, Battery Sergeant-Major George Dorrell and Sergeant David Nelson.
Orders had come to battery 'L'
To hold the ridge and hold it well
To cover the march across the plain
Of troops retiring on Compaigne;
The simple orders they received
Were to guard the way till they were relieved
Protecting the rear with trusty guns
From the coming sweep of the myriad "Huns"
The night wore on and the early day
Opened in mist that was dense and grey;
All was silence and none could see
What the movements of troops might be
The men imagined that their task was o'er
And waited the orders to march once more
But signalling plans it seems went wrong
And never a message came along
Higher and higher the sun rose
The mist is melting it slowly goes
The beams of the sun its vapours dispel
For there on the frowning hills around,
Masses of Germans cover the ground
The British and French had got away well
But they'd somehow forgotten Battery 'L'
From the laughing Army over the way
Ten guns and two Maxims come into play;
The first cannonade is direct and dire
The battery's horse fall in the fire.
'Tis a murdering thing to suddenly know
Instead of friend you face a foe;
Buth the battery losing horse and man
Must stay where it is and do what it can.
It’s horses are slain it cannot move
Its guns retreat by labour of love;
Of the guns themselves there are only three
That men can train on the enemy.
Only three guns the duel ti begin
The foe have ten with maxims thrown in !
But there is no complaint from battery 'L'
Not a man jack among them is unnerved
Just as at Woolwich the guns are served
Though whistling shot and shells that screech,
Mow down the gunners at the breech.
Officers served the guns with the men
Every rank was equal then;
And when one fell in a fraction of space
Up stepped another in his place
They fought like heroes they fought like gods
But ten to three are terrible odds:
And spite of all that valour could do,
Of three guns the enemy silenced two.
Two guns gone from poor little three
Well that’s When an Englishman is fine to see
And all the tales our histories tell
In front will be that of Battery 'L'
One gun firing and that the last!
The men who serve are falling fast;
Glad in grim death before they go
To reap high ruin upon the foe:
The aim is true and the range is right
The Germans are in a pitiful plight.
But little they guess across the plain
Only three Englishmen remain
Darrel, Osborne, Derbyshire
They fought for a day, nor ceased to fire
Till killed or retreated were all the Hunns
Leaving behind ten silent guns:
And when help came to that marvellous band
Three wounded men could scarcely stand
A wonderful hush on the regiments fell
As they stood and saluted Battery 'L'
Service No: 31730
Date of Death: 15/09/1917
Regiment/Service: Royal Field Artillery "Y" 62nd T.M. Bty.
Panel Reference Bay 1.
Memorial ARRAS MEMORIAL
Born in 1895, John Inscoe enlisted in Wolverhampton Sfaffordshire. His 1911 Cenus entry records his occupation as a metal worker (general), and living with his parents, Albert and Susan, together with brother Howard at 6 Manlove Street, Wolverhampton. The cenus records that by 1911 Susan Incscoe had given birth to 5 children, three of whom are recorded as died. She would loose a fourth child on 15th September 1917.
He serving with Y 62nd Trench Mortary battery and the begining of August 1917 the trench moratrs had gone into the line in the area of BULLECOURT, near ARRAS.
on the 15th September the battery was lenat to the 50th division to conduct a trench raid. The record from the War Services of the 62nd Divisional Artillery records "Previously Y Battery had only had two men killed, and so were able to man their four guns.The German barrage was again very heavy, and we suffered severely. Round one gun were grouped about a hundred bombs ready for firing, and exactly what happened we shall never know, but the lot were detonated. The detachment was of course blown to atoms, and at the next gun two men were killed by the explosion as well as Lieut. Harris"
Those recorded on the Arras memorial from the 62nd Trench Mortars are Gunners William Ingram (21) , John Inscoe (22) and Edward Kerrigan (18)
Information from Beckminster Methodist Church War memorial Penn Fields
The son of Albert and Susan Inscoe of Lorne Terrace, Church Road Bradmore, when he died John Inscoe was Gunner 31730 of the 62nd Trench Mortar Battery, Royal Field Artillery. Although normally attached to the 62nd West Riding Division, which had only arrived in France in March 1917, two Companies, 'Y/62' and 'Z/62' Trench Mortar Batteries were seconded to the 50th Division for a raid carried out on September 15th that year.
Their position was in a little-used trench about 150 yards behind their own front line opposite Cherisy in the Arras area of France. This trench had previously suffered very little from the German barrage, and it was expected that casualties there would be slight. In the event, this trench received about 75 percent of the total German Barrage that day. Earlier John’s Battery had had few casualties, but now they suffered severely. Around one gun were grouped about a hundred bombs ready for firing, and exactly what happened we shall never know, but at 7.40 pm. the whole lot were detonated. There would have been nothing left for his comrades to bury. He was 21 years old. John’s elder brother Howard is also on the church memorial as having served. John is officially commemorated on the Arras Memorial.
Extracts from War Services of the 62nd Divisional Artillery
On about this date one of my trench mortar batteries
went into action in Bullecourt.
They are in a ruin in the middle of the village. You get to
them by first entering an old cellar in another ruin, and then
scrambling down a sloping tunnel to an underground chamber
about 30 feet below the surface of the ground. Here the detach-
ment live. Then you crawl up another tunnel, and emerge into
the ruin which holds the mortar emplacements.
I think that the trench mortar batteries had, on the
whole, while they were in action, the most uncomfortable
and dangerous job of any troops in the line. The
infantry, while recognising their great value, objected
not unnaturally to have such favourite objects of the
enemy's attentions in any position near their dug-outs
or much frequented trenches ; and, as it was necessary
that the mortars should be sited as close as possible to
the enemy's front line, and yet, for the above reason,
not too near the infantry, it followed that the only
available positions were usually in unpopular spots
shunned by all who had any choice in the matter, and
generally bearing such significant titles as Hell Fire
Point, V.C. Corner, Deadman's Gulley, etc. The
unfortunate detachments lived underground for practi-
cally the whole of their tour of duty, as it was often
impossible to get to and from their emplacements during
the daylight ; and, owing to shortage of men, their tours
of duty were generally two or three times as long as those
of the infantry. When I went to visit them, I could
nearly always promise myself an exciting walk with
plenty of thrills in it. I retain lively recollections of
crawling with Lindsell or Anderson, guided by Powell,
the D.T.M.O., along shallow trenches, or places where
trenches had been before they were demolished, and
finally diving down into the ground to find ourselves,
when the eyes got used to the subterranean darkness,
in the midst of a party of smiling jolly looking gunners.
They were a cheerful lot, and, after all, they had their
compensations. There were times when there was no
scope for the use of trench mortars, and then they would
sometimes get a rest for several weeks at a time, in some
pleasant billet well back from the firing line ; and when
they did get a rest, it was well deserved.
" Y/62 and Z/62 trench mortar batteries were lent
to the 50th Division for a raid they carried out on
September 15th, 1917. The field guns and trench
mortars provided a box barrage, the latter putting their
contributions at each side, while the field guns shelled
the enemy's support trenches.
" Our positions were in a little-used trench about
150 yards behind our own front line, opposite Cherisy.
This trench had previously suffered very little from
the German barrage, and it was expected that casualties
there would be slight. The wire was not cut from any
of these positions, and guns not even registered from
" The first portion of the raid was carried out from
4 p.m. to 4.40 p.m., and was completely successful.
The Battalion which went over the top was commanded
by the late Brig.-General Bradford, V.C., then Colonel,
who afterwards came to the 62nd Division as a Brigade
" As ill luck would have it (I cannot think it anything
else), the trench the mortars were in received about
75 per cent, of the total German barrage, and casualties
were so heavy among Z battery that they were unable
to man their guns for the full length of time. Lieut.
G. A. Craven was so severely wounded that he died the
same evening, while Lieut. W. Wooliscroft was wounded,
and most of the men either killed or wounded.
" At 7.40 p.m. half a battalion went over the top again,
and in this case also the results were all that could have
been desired. Previously Y Battery had only had two
men killed, and so were able to man their four guns.
The German barrage was again very heavy, and we
suffered severely. Round one gun were grouped about
a hundred bombs ready for firing, and exactly what
happened we shall never know, but the lot were
detonated. The detachment was of course blown to
atoms, and at the next gun two men were killed by the
explosion as well as Lieut. Harris. One man alone was
left unharmed, and after carrying some wounded under
cover, he returned and manned his gun single-handed
until the raid was over.
"We went to the raid 4 officers and about 40 other
ranks, and returned to our Division 1 officer and 6 other
I received the following letter from the G.O.C.R.A.,
50th Division :
' Will you please thank your fellows very much for
the good work they did for us yesterday. I am most
awfully sorry your trench mortars had such a bad time.
It was just bad luck ; the Boche put down a barrage
where he had never put one down before, and caught
them. It was most unfortunate. I can't tell you how
sorry I am about it."